KPE160 Midterm

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Anatomical Position

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131 Terms

1

Anatomical Position

spine in neutral position, eyes straight forwards, arms and forearms at side with elbows extended and hands supinated, feet together with knees and hip straight, penis erect

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2

Sagittal Spinal Curves

Lordosis and kyphosis

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3

Frontal Spinal Curve

scoliosis

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4

Transverse Spinal Curve

rotoscoliosis

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5

Base of Support

the area circumscribed by the outermost parts of your contact patch

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6

Contact Patch

the portion of the body that is in contact with the earth's surface

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7

Contact Pressure

the weight/area for each space within the contact patch

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8

Centre of Pressure

the point on the ground where the resultant pressure vector falls

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9

Assessing Posture in the Sagittal Plane

pelvic tilt, spinal curves and abnormalities

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10

Assessing Posture in the Coronal Plane

spinal curves, left-right asymmetries, extremity valgus/varus

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Assessing Posture in the Transverse Plane

lower extremities external/internal/pronation/supination, trunk directions, scapular angle

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12

Newton's First Law

a body will remain at constant momentum unless acted upon by an unbalanced external force

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13

Newton's Third Law

every action has an equal and opposite reaction

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14

Articular Surfaces

the points of separation between bones needed to allow easy movement with low friction

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15

Joining structures

ligaments, tendons, muscles, fibrocartilage

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16

Degrees of Freedom of Joint Movement

6 components of 3D space: x, y, z, xy, xz, yz

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17

Physiologic Motion

joint movement in a natural DoF during movement caused by normal muscle activation and normal reaction forces

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18

Non-Physiologic Motion

primarily independent movement in a DoF that does not occur naturally under normal loading

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19

Accessory Motion

a small amount of non-physiological motion that normally accompanies physiological motion

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20

Ginglymus Joint

one RDoF orthogonal to axis. Eg. knee, finger joints

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21

Condyloid Joint

two RDoFs orthogonal to axis. eg. wrist

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22

Trychoid JOint

one RDoF to axis. eg. radius and ulna

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23

Enarthrosis Joint

three RDoFs to axis. eg. shoulder

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24

Arthrodial Joint

one to three TDoFs. eg. carpels

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25

Condyloid Joint Movement

flexion-extension, abduction-adduction

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26

Ginglymus Joint Movement

flexion-extension

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27

Trychoid Joint Movement

pronation-supination

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28

Enarthrodial Joint Movement

floating axis system

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29

Scapular Movements

elevation, tipping, protraction, retraction, shrug

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30

Spinal Movements

flexion-extension, left-right rotation, left-right lateral bend

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31

Foot and Ankle Movements

dorsi-plantar flexion pronation-supination

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32

Range of Motion

the extent of joint movement in a physiological degree of freedom of motion

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33

Hypermobility/flexibility

Greater than normal RoM

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34

Hypomotibility/restriction

less than normal RoM

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35

Active RoM

how far someone can move a joint using only the muscles that span that joint

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36

Passive RoM

how far a joint can be moved by application of external forces

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37

Flexibility

ability of muscles and soft tissues to lengthen

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38

Mobility

affected by joint RoM, flexibility, strength, motor control, past experiences, and motivation

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39

Assessing Active RoM

ask the client to move the target joint as far as they are comfortable doing so with their own muscles

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40

Assessing Passive RoM

move the target joint until significant stiffening is felt, or the subject reaches their tolerance

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41

Constraints of Joint Motion

passive structures (bones, cartilage, ligaments), active structures (muscles, fascia)

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42

Laxity

greater than normal joint play or non-physiologic motion

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43

Statistical Flexibility

a joint that displays above average RoM in that DoF

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44

Generalized Hypermobility

tested by the Beighton score

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45

Adequate Task Flexibility

RoM sufficient to perform target tasks

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46

Uniped Segment

foot, leg, thigh, HAT

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47

Uniped Joints

ankle, knee, hip

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48

Uniped Muscle Groups

dorsi-plantar flexors, hip flex-extendors, knee flex-extendors, rectus femoris, hamstring, gastroc

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49

Multiarticular Structures

structures that span more than one skeletal articulation

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50

Passive Sufficiency

sufficient length of structures such that they do not constrain passive motion of any joints via tension

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51

Test for Bi-Articular Passive Sufficiency

compare PRoM of one articulation spanned by the muscle in flexed and relaxed positions

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52

Mechanics of Deformation

forces applied to material bodies cause acceleration and deformation

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53

Mechanics of Deformation Players

elasticity, failure, plasticity, viscosity

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54

Plastic Deformation

deformation that remains after the load is removed

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55

Elastic Deformation

tendency of a material body to return to its original shape after deformation by a load

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56

Human Connective Tissue Mechanics of Deformation

tendons/ligaments rupture at 110% strain, inactivated muscles fail at 200% strain

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57

Creep

if a visco-elastic body is stretched by a constant load, its length will increase slowly along a first-order curve

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58

Load Relaxation

tension decreases along a first-order curve if a visco-elastic body is stretched by a constant load

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59

Temporal Load Profile

the magnitude of load at each point in time

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60

Mechanical Effects of Stretching

short-term increase in length, short-term decrease in force production

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61

How to Stretch

after activity or at other times, multi-articular structures, protect compliant segments

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62

Moment Arm

the perpendicular distance from the line of action of a force to a point or axis of rotation

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63

Muscle-Tendon Units

organs that join articulated segments of our body. control posture and movement

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64

Muscle Structure

bundled myofibrils of actin and myosin.

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65

Excitability of Muscle

an electrical potential is maintained by ionic gradients and stimulated by neurons. the neuron depolarizes and releases acetylcholine at a neuro-muscular junction, which causes depolarization of the muscle fibres

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66

Motor Unit

a single motor neuron and the muscle fibres attached to it

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67

Sarcomere

overlapping filaments of actin and myosin attached by cross-bridges

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68

Factors Affecting Muscle Force Production

activation, architecture, cross-sectional area, length, velocity

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69

Measuring Muscle Activation

measuring with EMG, maximum EMV = MVA. muscle activation is expressed as %MVA

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70

Muscle Architecture

fibres within muscles are attached to tendons or bones in different arrangements and angles of pennation

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71

Anatomical Cross-Sectional Area

plane orthogonal to line of action

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72

Physiological Cross-Sectional Area

plane orthogonal to the line fibres

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73

Sarcomere Length vs Tension

the maximum force is at mid-length when the filament overlap is optimal

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74

Active Tension

strongest at the middle range of motion, comes from actin and myosin

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75

Passive Tension

gains strength after the middle range of motion, comes from fascial envelope

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76

Kinetic Chains

a series of linked segments that can change shape by flexing or extending

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77

Closed Kinetic Chain

the distal segment is fixed and proximal segment moves

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Open Kinetic Chain

the distal segment is free to move

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79

Muscle Moment Arm

determined by the location of the line of action of the muscle, and the location of the axis of rotation of the joint

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80

Functions of Muscle Activation

accelerating, maintaining constant velocity, decelerating

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81

Isotonic Muscle Activation

activation with constant tension. can be concentric/isometric/eccentric, may be isokinetic

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Concentric Muscle Activation

positive shortening velocity. can accelerate, maintain velocity, and stabilize deceleration

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83

Eccentric Muscle Activation

negative shortening velocity. can decelerate, maintain velocity, and stabilize acceleration

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84

Isometric Muscle Activation

zero shortening velocity, muscle length is constant. can only stabilize segments

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85

Agonist

concentric

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86

Antagonict

eccentric

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87

Bi-Articular Muscles in the Sagittal Plane

during simultaneous flexion-extension at both joints, the muscle is isotonic.

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88

Flexion of Gravity in the Sagittal Plane

gravity generates flexion moments that increase with joint flexion

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89

Support Moment

the sum of all moments of muscle forces that counterract the moments of force of gravity

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90

Moments of Gravity in the Coronal Plane

double stance moments cancel-out left to right with no muscular activation. single stance moments have no cancellation and require muscle activation

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91

Coronal Plane Moments of Gravity at the Rearfoot in Single Stance

the joint sways between valgus, neutral, and varus. the hip is adducted

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92

Axial Rotation of the Hip and Rearfoot Linked by the Knee

the chain is driven axially from either end — hip or rearfoot. hip muscles are bigger and produce a greater force

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93

Rearfoot Linkage of Axial and Coronal Rotation

subtalar joint links 3RDoF. pronation and supination occurs

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94

Rearfoot Pronation Moment of Gravity

navicular drop caused by gravity's moment lowers the body's CoM by 1-2cm

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95

Sagittal Plane Variations in Squatting

centre of pressure, mobility, counterbalance

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96

Statistical Mechanical Equilibrium

positional equilibrium, which is zero acceleration, zero velocity, and constant position

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97

Dynamic Mechanical Equilibrium

zero net force with movement

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98

Equilibrium Sway

equilibrium may tend towards a constant value, but vary around it with different frequency and magnitude

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99

Stability of Equilibrium

ability to withstand change or perturbation

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100

Types of Human Mechanical Equilibria

joint equilibrium and postural equilibrium

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