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Italian poet and humanist scholar, discovered work by Cicero

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Lorenzo Valla

Italian humanist and philologist proved Donation of Constantine was a fake

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Leonardo Bruni

Italian humanist, historian and leader of Florence. Prompted civic humanism.

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Niccolò Machiavelli

Italian humanist, historian and secular political theorist (The Prince)

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Baldassare Castiglione

Italian humanist whose work outlined the ideal Renaissance courtier (Book of the Courtier)

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Pico della Mirandola

Italian humanist who promoted individualism (Oration on Dignity of Man)

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Dutch Chrisitan humanist who criticised corruption in Church and State with Adages and challenged Church authority with new latin bible translation.

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Thomas More

English Christian humanist who corresponded with Erasmus, wrote Utopia and opposed the Reformation in England

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Johannes Gutenberg

German craftsman who developed a process of making movable type and the printing press

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Pope Julius II

Known as the ‘Warrior Pope’, he enlarged the Vatican states and was a patron to Michelangelo

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Louis XI of France

New monarch who defeated most powerful and independent of French nobles Charles the Bold of Burgundy

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Francis I of France

New monarch who continued the sale of office to raise revenue, increased state bureaucracy and made Concordat of Bologna with pope.

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Henry VII of England

New monarch victor in War of the Roses and first Tudor monarch. Increased the power of the English monarchy by outlawing private armies and careful use of government finance.

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Henry VIII of England

New monarch, broke with the authority of the pope to empower himself to become head of Church in England. Closed monasteries of England.

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Isabella of Castile+Ferdinand of Aragon

New monarchs in Spain. Supported by the powerful Hermandad of cities and towns. Ended religious toleration, expelled Jews and Muslims, established Spanish Inquisition.

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Henry the Navigator

Portuguese leader who promoted use of caravel ships, exploration of Western Africa and the islands of the Atlantic Ocean.

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Christopher Columbus

Italian born explorer, funded by Ferdinand and Isabella, landed on the island of Hispaniola while attempting to find a route to India.

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Bartolomeu Dias

Portuguese sailor and first European to round the southern tip of Africa

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Vasco da Gama

Portuguese sailor and the first European to reach India by sea

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Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese explorer who planned and led a Spanish funded expedition to circumnavigate the world

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Martin Luther

German born priest who criticised the corrupt sale of indulgences in the 95 thesis as well as later publishing a translation of the bible into German.

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John Calvin

French born scholar who developed a form of Protestantism that became highly influential in the Swiss city of Geneva.

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John Knox

Scottish reformer who brought Calvinism to Scotland where it became highly influential

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Frederick III, Elector of Saxony

German prince who sheltered Martin Luther as an outlaw. During this time Luther made a translation of the bible into German.

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Charles V

Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. Most powerful Habsburg leader in history, he also dominated Italy, the Netherlands and the New World. Declared Luther an outlaw at the Diet of Worms and later faced Protestant rebellion by the German Schmalkaldic League. Later agreed to allow practice of Lutheranism under terms of Peace of Augsburg

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Edward VI of England

Continued the Protestant reformation in England after death of Henry VIII and introduced the Book of Common Prayer

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Elizabeth I of England

Successor to Mary I of England. Reversed Catholic counter-reformation in England. Continued the Protestant reformation in England, and involved England in French and Spanish wars of religion on Protestant side.

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Philip II of Spain

The son of Emperor Charles V and briefly husband of Queen Mary I of England. Ruled a massive Spanish Empire in Europe and the New World. Enforced Catholic counter-reformation by funding the French Catholic League and sending armada to invade England. Lack of toleration provoked independence of the Dutch united provinces and war.

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King Henry III of France

King of France who supported a policy of religious toleration but did not have a successor. The death of his brother Francis, Duke of Anjou sparked the ‘War of the three Henrys’. His allies were the politique faction.

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King Henry of Navarre (Henry IV of France)

Leader of the Huguenots in the War of the three Henrys, supported by Elizabeth I of England and the German protestant princes. Victor in the war, he later converted to Catholicism and passed the Edict of Nante, began Bourbon line.

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Henry of Lorraine (Duke of Guise)

Leader of the ultra-Catholic faction in the War of the three Henrys.

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Ignatius of Loyola

Spanish nobleman who underwent Catholic religious transformation and established the Society of Jesus, better known as the Jesuits.

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Ferdinand II

Holy Roman Emperor who succeeded the childless Rudolf II. He ended religious toleration in the empire and promoted the Jesuit led Catholic Counter-Reformation. These actions sparked the 30 Years War.

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Frederick, Elector of the Palatinate

Reigned as Calvinist king of Bohemia, briefly, during the Bohemian phase of the 30 Years War

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Christian IV of Denmark

Protestant king of Denmark and Norway who successfully invaded and devastated much of Germany during the 30 Years War.

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Albrecht von Wallenstein

Military leader who became the supreme commander of the armies of Emperor Ferdinand II in the 30 Years War. A successful leader, he was assassinated at the orders of the emperor himself, who feared his growing power and influence.

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Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

Protestant King of Sweden and ambitious military leader. Transformed Sweden into a significant power but died in battle against Wallenstein in the 30 Years War.

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Cardinal Richelieu of France:

French clergyman and chief minister to King Louis XIII of France. Helped consolidate the power of the monarchy and involved France in war against the Holy Roman Empire along with funding and allying with various Protestant nations.

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Charles I of England

The only English king to be executed, his reign led to the English Civil War and the establishment of the Commonwealth.

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Oliver Cromwell

Ruled the Commonwealth as Lord Protector after the execution of Charles I.

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Charles II of England

Oversaw the Restoration, undoing many of Oliver Cromwell's strict laws.

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James II of England

Succeeded his brother, exiled during the Glorious Revolution due to his Catholic beliefs.

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William of Orange

Invited to take over as the king of England after the Glorious Revolution, establishing constitutional monarchy.

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Louis XIV

Known as the "Sun King," he moved the court to Versailles, built absolutism, and ruled France for a long period.

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Cardinal Mazarin

Chief minister during the regency of Louis XIV, defeated the Fronde, and played a key role in consolidating royal power.

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Marquis de Louvois

Minister in charge of wars under Louis XIV, contributing to the development of the French military.

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Jean Baptiste Colbert

Promoted France as a maritime power and pursued an aggressive foreign policy for France during the reign of Louis XIV.

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Peter the Great

Russian tsar who westernised Russia, modernised the military, and introduced absolutist reforms.

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Catherine the Great of Russia

Enlightened ruler who gave rights to the gentry (landowners) and made several reforms in Russia.

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Maria Theresa of Austria

Modernised Austria but remained conservative in her approach to governance.

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Joseph II of Austria

Implemented radical reforms, embracing Enlightenment ideas such as complete religious freedom and the abolition of serfdom.

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Frederick II, the Great of Prussia

Implemented reforms, banned torture, introduced religious toleration, and invited Voltaire to Prussia.

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Andreas Vesalius

Challenged Galen’s ideas of anatomy by drawing images of human anatomy.

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Proposed the heliocentric model, suggesting that the Earth revolves around the sun.

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Using a telescope, he provided evidence supporting the heliocentric model and was tried by the Inquisition.

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Isaac Newton

Formulated mathematical proofs of the laws of gravity, contributing to the scientific revolution.

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William Harvey

Challenged Galen with his discoveries on the circulation of blood.

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Francis Bacon

Advocate of inductive reasoning as the basis of all knowledge.

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René Descartes

French philosopher known for rationalism and deductive reasoning.

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David Hume

Sceptic philosopher who questioned the certainty of knowledge.

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Adam Smith

Scottish economist known for economic liberalism and the idea of constitutional government.

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John Locke

Philosopher who believed that scientific methods could be applied to human problems like the government.

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Advocate of deism, religious toleration, and critic of absolute monarchy; believed Jesus was not the son of God.

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Baron d’Holbach

Atheist who openly expressed his views due to his wealth, emphasising the need for people to believe in something.

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Advocated for radical republican government, arguing that it was only justified if the people agreed.

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Mary Wollstonecraft

Considered the first feminist, challenged Rousseau's patriarchal ideas.

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George Washington

1st president of the United States, leading figure in the revolution

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Maximilien Robespierre

Reign of terror and committee of public safety

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Jean Paul Marat

Newspaper writer - ami du peuple

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Toussaint L’Ouverture

Fought for the revolt in Saint

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Olympe de Gouges

Fought for women’s rights during the revolution

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Edmund Burke

Irish politician who thought the French Revolution went too far and founded conservatism

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Alexander I of Russia

Very religious who thought he was on a mission to save christianity and created the holy alliance and defeated Napoleon

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Klemens von Metternich

Austrian prime minister who was against the unification of Germany and liberalism

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Lord Castlereagh

British Foreign secretary at the congress of Vienna who wanted the balance of power

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Johann Fichte

Romantic German poet who was for the unification of Germany and interest in German culture and language and against Napoleon

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Richard Arkwright

English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the first Industrial Revolution, created the first factory. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.

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George Stephenson

built first steam locomotive, called Rocket

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Henry Bessemer

(1813-1898) An English engineer who created the Bessemer process, a process of producing steel cheaply , in which impurities are removed by forcing a blast of air through molten iron.

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Jeremy Bentham

(1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.

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Robert Owen

a Utopian who set up a model community at his cotton mill in Scotland. He was involved in the cooperative movement

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Friedich Engels

scientific socialist, marxism also wrote "communist manifesto"

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Clara Zetkin

A German Marxist theorist, activist, and advocate for women's rights. After World War I she played a leading role in the new Communist Party of Germany. German social democrat and feminist

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Edwin Chadwick

advocated modern sanitary reforms that resulted in Britain's first Public Health Act.. Not enough sewers and cleanse water which led to the spread of disease

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Georges Haussmann

(1809-1884), appointed by Napoleon III to reorganise Paris, razed buildings to create wide boulevards (prevent easy construction of barricades), demolished slums, created parks and open spaces, improved water supply system

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Earl of Shaftesbury

philanthropist, evangelical christian, started YMCA and started every Factory Acts

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Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)

An Italian patriot and politician, was a key figure in the Risorgimento, advocating for the unification of Italy. He co-founded the secret society "Young Italy" and played a crucial role in shaping the early Italian nationalist movement.

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Count of Cavour (1810-1861)

was a statesman and leading figure in the Italian unification. Serving as the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, he orchestrated diplomatic efforts and alliances that contributed significantly to the establishment of a unified Italy in 1861.

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Karl Lueger (1844-1910)

An Austrian politician, was the mayor of Vienna and a prominent figure in Viennese politics. He was known for his anti-Semitic views and populist tactics, although his influence on Austrian politics extended beyond his controversial ideologies.

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Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)

Often regarded as the father of modern political Zionism, advocated for the establishment of a Jewish state. His work laid the foundation for the Zionist movement, and he convened the First Zionist Congress in 1897, setting the stage for the eventual creation of Israel.

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Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)

A mastermind of German unification,served as the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Prussia and later as the first Chancellor of the German Empire. His strategic diplomatic and military actions played a pivotal role in uniting the German states in 1871.

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Leopold II of Belgium (1835-1909)

is infamous for his brutal exploitation of the Congo Free State during his personal rule. His reign over the colony involved widespread human rights abuses and exploitation of natural resources.

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Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

A French chemist and microbiologist, made groundbreaking contributions to the fields of microbiology and immunology. He is renowned for his development of the pasteurization process and his work on vaccines, including the rabies vaccine.

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Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

A French philosopher and sociologist, is considered one of the founders of sociology. He developed the theory of positivism, emphasizing the scientific method and empirical observation in the study of society.

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Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

An Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, revolutionized the understanding of human psychology. His theories on the unconscious mind, repression, and the Oedipus complex had a profound impact on the field of psychology.

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Max Planck (1858-1947)

A German physicist, is best known for formulating quantum theory. He introduced the concept of quantized energy and the quantum of action, laying the groundwork for modern quantum mechanics.

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Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

An English philosopher and sociologist, is known for his contributions to social Darwinism and the theory of evolution applied to human societies. He coined the phrase "survival of the fittest" and influenced the development of sociology.

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David Livingstone (1813-1873)

A Scottish missionary and explorer, played a key role in the exploration of Africa. He is known for his efforts to abolish the slave trade and his famous encounter with journalist Henry Morton Stanley in 1869.

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Gavrilo Princip

murdered Franz Ferdinand; schedule of events nationalistic Bosnia.

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Woodrow Wilson

US President; independence; idealism; nation-states = 1st WW setting

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