Ap Bio Midterm Review

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Amphipathic

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Biology

11th

298 Terms

1

Amphipathic

Contains polar (hydrophilic) and non polar (hydrophobic) regions. ex: phospholipids

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Phospholipid bilayer

Consists of two layers of phospholipids with the hydrophobic tails on the inside. Allow non-polar particles to enter, but often bounces out polar particles.

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3

Structure of Membrane

Contains phospholipids, channel/transport proteins, steroids (carbs), and proteins

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4

Factors affecting membrane fluidity

Unsaturated lipids prevent packing and keep it fluid. Saturated lipids allow it to pack together, making it viscous. Cholesterol buffers fluidity and prevents it from being too fluid/viscous

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Peripheral proteins

Proteins bound to membrane surface

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6

Integral proteins

Hydrophobic core of the membrane

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7

Transmembrane proteins

Span the whole membrane

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8

Functions of membrane proteins

Transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intracellular joining, attatching to ECM and cytoskeleton

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9

Glycolipid

Carb bounded to lipid

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10

Glycoprotein

Carb bounded to protein

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11

Selective permeability

Some substances can cross more easily than others. exhibited by membrane. depends on both the lipid bilayer and the specific transport proteins it contains

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12

Transport proteins

Allow different substances to cross the membrane (embedded in membrane) involved in facilitated diffusion and active transport.

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13

Channel proteins

Embedded in membrane and has a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules/ions can use to move through

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14

Aquaporins

Special types of channel protein that helps water move through

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15

Ion channel

Special types of channel protein that helps ions move through

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16

Diffusion

Diffusion is the movement of particles of any substance so that they spread out evenly into the available space (dynamic equalibrium). move from high to low conc. (down a conc. grad) through a membrane

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17

concentration gradient

the region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases

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18

osmosis

specific type of diffusion involving free water (water not clustered around another molecule)

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19

Passive transport

transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion (facilitated or not)

expenditure of energy is not required

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20

tonicity

is the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water (depends on conc. of water and other solutes that can move through membrane)

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21

Isotonic

solution conc. is same for both, water diffuses at same rate back and forth, no net movement. normal for animal cells. makes plant cells flaccid

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hypotonic

less solute and more water. water moves/diffuses away from this area,. causes animal cells to lyse. makes plant cells turgid (ideal condition, means firm)

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hypertonic

more solute and less water. water moves/diffuses towards this area. causes animal cells to shrivel and plant cells to plasmolyse (membrane shrivels away from walls)

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osmoregulation

control of solute concentration and water balance ex: freshwater protists using contractile vacuole to pump out excess water

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25

facilitated diffusion

transport proteins assist in moving molecules down a conc. gradient (high to low)

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26

gated channels

special type of ion channel that opens/closes in response to a stimulus

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27

active transport

transport of a substance across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient by hydrolyzing ATP into ADP for energy. all proteins involved are carrier proteins enables cells to maintain solute concentrations that differ from the environment

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28

sodium pottasium pump

uses a phosphate from ATP to energize the transport of K+ into the cell and Na+ out of the cell. allows our neurons to refire

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29

membrane potential

Voltage across a membrane, created by differences in the distribution of positive and negative ions inside is neg and attracts cations inside, outside is pos and wants anions outside

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30

electrochemical gradient

a chemical force (the ion’s concentration gradient) and an electrical force (the effect of the membrane potential on the ion’s movement) combined to drive ion diffusion across a membrane

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31

electrogenic pump

a transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane, storing energy that can be used for cellular work (USES ATP IN THIS PROCESS)

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32

proton pump

transports H+ ions out of the cell. assists in cotransport of sucrose back into the cell

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33

cotransport

passive transport helps provide energy to drive the active transport of another solute

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34

exocytosis

transport vesicles migrate to the membrane, fuse with it, and release their contents outside the cell

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35

endocytosis

In endocytosis, macromolecules are taken into the cell in vesicles & the membrane surrounds the material for transport into a vesicle. 3 types: phago, pino, and receptor mediated

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phagocytosis

a cell engulfs a particle by extending pseudopodia around it and packing it in a membranous sac called a food vacuole, and then fuses with a lysosome to digest the particle

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37

pinocytosis

molecules are taken up when extracellular fluid is “gulped” into tiny vesicles. takes in any and all substances, nonspecific

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38

receptor mediated endocytosis

Receptor proteins bound to specific solutes from the extracellular fluid are clustered in coated pits that form coated vesicles Emptied receptors are recycled to the plasma membrane by the same vesicl

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39

cytosol

the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended. found in all cells located in cytoplasm

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40

cytoplasm

where cytosol is located found in all cells region between plasma membrane and nucelus

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41

nucleus

holds DNA, genetic instructions, and ribosomes. contains genes found in eukaryotic cells located in middle of the cell, surrounded by nuclear envelope and membrane

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42

cell/plasma membrane

selective barrier that allows oxygen, nutrient, and waste passage to service the cell found in all cells located at the very outside (inside cell wall for plants)

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43

cell wall

protects cell (prevents physical damage) and gives cell shape and structure. made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, and proteins found in plants, fungi, protists, and prokaryotic cells. (eubacteria made of peptidoglycan, archae dont) located at the very outside

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44

mitochondrion

uses oxygen to turn glucose into ATP (cellular respiration) and generates chem energy for the cell found in eukaryotic cells located in cytosol

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45

chloroplast

converts light energy into chemical energy stored in sugar through photosynthesis found in plant cells located near cell wall in cytosol

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46

ribosome

creates proteins by reading mRNA and translating it into amino acid string found in all cells bound ribosomes located outside of ER or nuclear envelope, free ribosomes located in cytosol

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47

endoplasmic reticulum

smooth produces lipids, carbs (metabolism). rough produces ribosomes found in eukaryotic cells located on top of the nuclear envelope

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48

golgi apparatus/body

processes proteins from ER (cis side), transports them to a new location (trans side), modifies and packages proteins in vesicles found in eukaryotic cells located near the nucleus

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49

lysosome

cells digestive system that can also recycle old materials through hydrolysis. some come from golgi trans face. destroy worn out parts (autolysis) and programmed cell death (autopsis) can fuse w fuel vesicle and digest contents found in animal cells located in cytoplasm

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50

central vacuole

a resivoir/waste dump, storage for water and waste, maintains water pressure, and keeps the cell in shape found in eukaryotic cells (big in plants small in animals) located in center of cytosol

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51

centrosome

region where cells microtubules are initiated provides structure. centriole pairs help in cell division found in animal cell located near nuclear envelope

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52

nucleoid

area of DNA with no nuclear envelope found in prokarytic cell located in the center

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53

flagellum

motility structure composed of some microtubules (plasma membrane extension) that helps it move found in bacterial, animal, and protist cells located at the pole of the cell

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54

peroxisome

specialized metabolic functions, takes hydrogen peroxide and converts it to water and oxygen. area for oxidation reactions, lipid biosynthesis, and cholesterol synthesis found in eukaryotic cells loocated in the cytoplasm

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55

nucleolus

site of ribosome production. 1+ in a nucleus found in eykaryotic cells located in center of nucleus

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56

chromatin

coil and condense to form chromosomes, which make DNA replication, etc possible. visible in a dividing cell found in all cells located in nucleus

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57

plasmodesmata

cytoplasmic channels through cell walls to connect cytoplasm of adjactent cell, enables transport found in plant cells located in cell wall

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58

contractile vacuole

a vacuole that discharges fluid and water from cells found in freshwater protist cells located in center of cell

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59

cilia

hairlike fringe on a cell that helps it move through water found in animal and protist cells located on cell surface

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60

tight junctions

establish a barrier between outer cell layers that prevents leakege of fluid, regulates solute movement found in animal cells located at the border between apical and lateral membranes

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61

gap junctions

consist of membrane proteins. has pores to allow small molecules to pass through, enable cell comunication.found in animal cells located between plasma membranes

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62

desmosomes

ashesion zone to fasten cells together like rivets, made of sturdy keratin proteins (in muscles to prevent tears) found in animal cells located along lateral membrane

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63

cytoskeleton

protein microtubules, intermediate filaments & microfilaments to provide strength and shape to cell and anchor cell in place found in eukarytic cells located in cytoplasm

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64

ECM

made up of glycoproteins such as collagen, proteoglycans, and fibronecti

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65

Sulfhydryl

-SH, polar. 2 SH can react, forming a cross link

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66

Hydroxyl

-OH, polar. Found in alcohols, tend to make substances dissolve in water.

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67

Carbonyl

C=O, polar

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68

Ketone

C=O in the middle

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69

Aldehyde

C=O at the end

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70

Carboxyl

COOH, polar. Acts like an acid (donates H+ ions and lowers PH)

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71

Amino

NH2, acts like a base (picks up H+ ions and increases PH)

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72

Phosphate

-OPO3^-2, Polar in 2 places, often involved in energy reactions (ATP)

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73

Methyl

-CH3, nonpolar

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74

Polymer

A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.

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75

Monomer

A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

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76

dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

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77

Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

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78

Enzyme

A type of special macromolecule that speeds up a chemical reaction (making and breaking polymers)

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79

Carbohydrates

Sugars and polymers of sugars

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80

Monosaccharides

Simple sugars. Usually have multiples of CH20. serve as a major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules

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81

Glucose

Most common monosaccharide. C6H12O6

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82

Disaccharide

A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

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83

glycosidic linkage

A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.

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84

Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides. Have storage and structural roles. Structure and function are determined by its sugar monomers and position of glycosidic linkages.

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85

Starch

A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose. Simplest form is amylose. helical structure.

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86

Glycogen

An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals

the animal equivalent of starch. Hydrolysis of glycogen releases glucose when needed

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87

Cellulose

polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls. straight and unbranched structure

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88

alpha and beta ring structures

Hydroxyl group attached in different position (in alpha the hydroxyl group is attached to number 1 carbon below the plane of the ring, in beta the hydroxyl group is attached to number 1 carbon above the plane of the ring)

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89

Chitin

A structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.

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90

Lipids

one class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers. Unifying trait is that they all mix poorly with water. consist mainly of hydrocarbons

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91

Fats

constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids

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92

glycerol

a three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon

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93

fatty acid

carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton

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94

triaclyglycerol/triglyceride (fat)

3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule ester linkage between glycerol and each fatty acid chain (dehydration synthesis) hydrophobic molecule

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95

ester linkage

The linkage formed between the glycerol molecule and the fatty acids in a fat is the ester linkage. This bond is formed through dehydration synthesis.

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96

saturated fatty acid

A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds. solid at room temp. found in animals

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97

unsaturated fatty acid

A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. liquid at room temp. found in plants and fish

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98

Hydrogenation

The process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen (trans fats)

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99

Phospholipids

a lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. phosphate group and attatchments form a hydrophilic head, but fatty acid chains are hydrophobic.

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100

phospholipid bilayer

A double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes. boundary between cell and external environment

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