word roots final prospectus unit 3

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54 Terms

1

{con/com}

together with (confide)

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2

{e/ex}

out (expel)

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3

{duc/duct}

lead (induce)

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4

{s}

plural

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5

{ion}

makes nouns

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6

{ive}

added to verb base to make adjs

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7

antonym

a word opposite in meaning to another

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8

consul

official at a consulate; top Roman political position

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9

emulation

rivalry, particularly involving imitation

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10

salutatory

welcoming

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11

salutary

healthful

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12

prosecution

the institution and conducting of legal proceedings against someone in respect of a criminal charge

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13

prudent

wise, careful, cautious

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14

relinquish

to let go, give up

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15

effectually

producing a desired effect

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16

restitution

payment for an injury; compensation

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17

principle

theory/standard/important rule/guideline (each person has their own principles)

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18

serendipity etymology

past: fairytale "the 3 princes of serendip" in which heroes made discoveries by accident

now: something interesting/pleasant happening by chance

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19

trivial etymology

past: a place where 3 roads meet

now: insignificant

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20

prone

lying on stomach, face down

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21

supine

lying on back, face up

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22

marital

married

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23

deus ex machina

a god from the machine; today = introduction of an artificial character or event that helps solve a complicated plot in fiction, film, etc. (ex: The play was interesting until the last act, when it became apparent that the problem could be resolved only by a deus ex machina)

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24

summum bonum

the highest good; today = the same; often used in philosophical discussion concerning a thing good in itself (ex: My opponent seems to believe that the summum bonum of the country is to eliminate poverty by starvation)

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25

how to use she/he and her/him

personal pronouns after the verb to be take the subjective case (I, she, he, we, you, they) ex: It is she NOT It is her

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26

{de}

down {intense} (descend)

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27

{prehens/prehend}

grasp (apprehend)

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28

{script/scribe}

write (inscribe)

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29

{tend/tens/tent}

stretch (extend)

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30

{trop}

turn (tropics)

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31

synonym

a word that has the same meaning as another word

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32

conducive

helpful (ex: Exercise that leads to good health is conducive to your health)

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33

council

an assembly or advisory group of people

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34

counsel

advice

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35

precarious

dangerous

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36

vicissitude

a change or variation; ups and downs

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37

legion

in large numbers

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38

frontier

a zone where no state exercises complete political control

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39

formidable

causing fear or dread

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40

Latinate style

more intellectual and emotionally distant (words derived from Latin)

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41

Anglo-Saxon style

more earthy and emotional (writing that is full of Anglo-Saxon)

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42

principal

-means first or most important; sometimes it is used as a noun to denote the first, most important, or chief

-principal (of a school), principal (dancer), principal (sum of money in a loan—before interest)

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43

idiot etymology

past: private

now: person who is so mentally deficient as to be incapable

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44

sarcasm etymology

past: to rend the flesh

now: a sneer

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45

assassin

past: a member of the Nizari branch of Ismaili Muslimsat the time of the Crusades, when the newly established sect ruledpart of northern Persia

now: important person in surprise attack for political/religious reasons

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46

raise

lift, to build up (ex: We raised the skyscraper in 6 months)

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47

raze

demolish (ex: They razed the skyscraper in 6 months)

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48

martial

military, war-loving

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49

modus operandi

method/way of acting/doing; today = someone's typical behavior or way of acting (ex: This crime fits the thief's modus operandi)

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50

dramatis personae

masks/characters of a drama; today = characters of a play (ex: The plot of the play was weak, but the talent of the dramatis personae made the production a success)

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51

non sequitur

it does not follow; today = a comment that is not logically connected with what came before (ex: Albert's remarks were so full of non sequiturs that the conversation seemed pointless)

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52

hypercorrection

use of an inappropriate pronunciation, grammatical form, or constructionresulting usually from an effort to replace incorrect or seemingly incorrect formswith correct ones

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53

how to use me and i

remove the additional nouns and pronouns and see if the result sounds right (ex: The bikes belong to ME not The bikes belong to I)

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54

how to use who and whom

-who is used for things that aren't objects

-whom is used for direct objects of verbs and objects of prepositions

-use the trick: who=replace with he/she, whom=replace with him/her

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