Science Exam

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Ecosystem

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76 Terms

1

Ecosystem

A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

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2

Voltage's role in circuits

Pressure that triggers electron flow

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3

Current's role in circuits

Rate of electron flow

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4

Resistance's role in circuits

Flow inhibitor

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5

Biotic

Living, or once living, factor in an ecosystem

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6

Abiotic

Non-living factor in an ecosystem

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7

Independent variable

The variable that is manipulated

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8

Dependent variable

The variable that responds to the independent variable, and is measured

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9

Controlled variable

The variable that remains constant so as to not interfere with the investigation

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10

Ohm's Law

E = IR

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11

Accuracy

the quality or state of being correct or precise.

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12

Reliability

the quality of being trustworthy or of performing consistently well.

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13

Validity

the quality of being logically or factually sound; soundness or cogency.

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14

Fairness

impartial and just treatment or behaviour without favouritism or discrimination.

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15

Experimental Group

In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

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16

Control Group

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

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17

Random error

an error that occurs when the selected sample is an imperfect representation of the overall population

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18

Systemic error

a consistent or proportional difference between the observed and true values of something (e.g., a miscalibrated scale consistently registers weights as higher than they actually are).

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19

Ecology

Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

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20

Organism

An individual living thing

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21

Species

A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.

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22

Population

A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area

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23

Community

All the different populations that live together in an area

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24

Biosphere

Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.

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25

Biodiversity

The amount of biological or living diversity per unit area. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity.

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26

Oxidation

loss of electrons

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27

Photosynthesis chemical equation (Worded)

Carbon dioxide and Water produces Glucose and oxygen

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28

Photosynthesis chemical equation (Symbols)

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

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29

Producer

An organism that can make its own food.

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30

Consumer

An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms

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31

Detritivore/Decomposer

organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter

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32

food chain

A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

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33

Trophic Levels of a Food chain

The levels of producers and consumers in a food chain. (Trophic means the nutrition at each level.)

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34

Central Nervous System (CNS)

consists of the brain and spinal cord

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35

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.

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36

somatic response

Signals travel from the brain down efferent pathway to muscles/neruons. Voluntary Response.

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37

Autonomic responses

Involuntary and automatic functions of the body, such as breathing, swallowing, and sexual arousal😏.

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38

Sensory Neuron

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord, such as recognizing that cheese tastes bad

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39

Motor Neuron

a neuron that sends an impulse to a muscle or gland, causing the muscle or gland to react, such as your finger touching cheese, your brain will recieve the signal and move away

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40

Interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs (idk how to link cheese to this)

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41

Nucleus

Control center of the cell

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42

Dendrites

Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.

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43

Soma

cell body of a neuron

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44

Myelin Sheath

A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.

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45

Node of Ranvier

A gap between successive segments of the myelin sheath where the axon membrane is exposed.

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46

neuromuscular junction

point of contact between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle cell

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47

Testosterone

Develop and maintain male sexual characteristics and maturation

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48

Melatonin

Releases during night hours to help with sleep

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49

Epinephrine

Increases heart rate, oxygen intake, and blood flow

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50

Estrogen

Affects development of female sexual characteristics and reproductive development, important for functioning of uterus and breasts; also protects bone health

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51

Insulin

Lowers blood sugar levels; stimulates metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat

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52

Growth hormone (GH)

Affects growth and development; stimulates protein production; affects fat distribution

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53

Cerebrum

Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body

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54

Cerebellum

A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.

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55

Brainstem

The oldest part and central core of the brain, responsible for automatic survival functions.

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56

Frontal lobe

Associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving

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57

Parietal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.

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58

Occipital lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information

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59

Temporal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.

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60

Voltage

an electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts.

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61

Current

A flow of electric charge.

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62

Resistance

A material's opposition to the flow of electric current.

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63

Parallel circuit

A circuit that contains more than one path for current flow.

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64

Series circuit

An electric circuit with a single path

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65

How to calculate resistance in circuitry

R = V divided by I (rearrangement of Ohm's Law)

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66

Unit of Resistance

Ohm (Ω)

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67

conductor

A material that allows heat and electricity to pass through it.

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68

Insulator

A material that does not allow heat or electrons to move through it easily.

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69

Isotope

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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70

Ion

An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.

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71

Anion

A negatively charged ion

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72

Organisation of the periodic table

By Atomic weight and valence electrons

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73

Atom

Single Neutral particle

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74

Molecule

A group of atoms bonded together, neutral particles

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75

chemical reactivity

the ability to combine and to chemically bond with each other, causing a reaction

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76

ionic compound

A compound that consists of positive and negative ions

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