bio 141 ch 5: cell membranes

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fluid mosaic model

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45 Terms

1

fluid mosaic model

mosaic of proteins floats in or on the fluid lipid bilayer like boats on a pond

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2

phospholipid structure

glycerol, two fatty acids, phosphate group

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3

glycerol

3 carbon polyalcohol

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4

two fatty acids

attach to glycerol in phospholipids. nonpolar and hydrophobic

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5

phosphate group

attach to glycerol in phospholipids. charged and hydrophilic

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6

four components of cellular membranes

phospholipid bilayer, transmembrane proteins, peripheral protein network, cell surface markers

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7

cell surface markers

glycoproteins or glycolipids

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8

saturated fatty acids in a bilayer

can withstand warmer temperatures, less fluid

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9

unsaturated fatty acids in a bilayer

colder temperatures, more fluid

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10

transmembrane domain

hydrophobic amino acids arranged within fatty acid region

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11

pores

polar interior allows water and small polar molecules to pass through the membrane down their concentration gradient

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12

diffusion

movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration

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13

passive transport

movement of molecules through a membrane in which no energy is required and molecules move in response to a concentration gradient

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14

selectively permeable

membranes are…

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15

small nonpolar molecules

can pass through the membrane easily

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16

small uncharged polar molecules

some will bounce off, others can pass through the membrane

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17

large uncharged polar molecules

most will not pass through the membrane

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18

ions

cannot pass through selectively permeable membrane

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19

facilitated diffusion

molecules that cannot cross membranes easily may move through proteins from higher to lower concentration

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20

channel proteins

hydrophilic when open; pore with a door

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21

carrier proteins

bind to molecules and change shape

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22

channel proteins

allow the passage of ions, highly polar substances, and bulky molecules through nonpolar interior of plasma membrane

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23

channel proteins

facilitated diffusion only

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24

carrier proteins

must bind to the molecule they transport

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25

osmosis

net diffusion of water across a membrane toward a higher solute concentration

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26

hypertonic

higher solute concentration in environment

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27

hypotonic

lower solute concentration in environment

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28

isotonic

two solutions have the same solute concentration

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29

hypotonic

human red blood cells will swell and eventually burst

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30

turgid

swollen

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31

isomotic regulation

involves keeping cells isotonic with their environment

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32

osmotic pressure

used by plant cells to push the cell membrane against the cell wall and keep the cell rigid

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33

turgor pressure

the force within the cell that pushes the cell membrane against the cell wall

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34

active transport

requires energy; ATP used directly or indirectly; moves substances from low to high; requires the use of highly selective carrier proteins

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35

uniporter

carrier protein that moves one molecule at a time

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36

symporter

carrier protein that moves two molecules in the same direction

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37

antiporter

carrier protein that moves two or more molecules in opposite directions

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38

coupled transport

combined action of antiporter and symporter

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39

Na+/K+ pump

direct use of energy from ATP for active transport; uses an antiporter to move 3 Na+ out of the cell and 2 K+ into the cell against both concentration gradients

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40

affinity

changes for either Na+ or K+ so ions can be carried across the membrane via the carrier protein

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41

symporter

uses ATP indirectly

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42

glucose/Na+ symporter

captures energy from Na+ diffusion to move glucose against concentration gradient

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43

endocytosis

bulk transport of substances into the cell; requires energy

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44

exocytosis

bulk transport of substances out of the cell; requires energy

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45

exocytosis

used in animals to secrete hormones, neurotransmitters, digestive enzymes

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