Principals of Biology- Exam 1

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Which level of biological organization is composed of several tissues?

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Biology

Chapters, 1, 2, 33, 4, 35

101 Terms

1

Which level of biological organization is composed of several tissues?

Organ

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2

A physician specializes in surgery involving the following group of organs: mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Overall, what is the highest level of organization that this physician is specialized in?

Organ System

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3

What is the correct sequence that lists the different levels of biological organization, from the smallest and simplest to the largest and most complex?

cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organism

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4

Which statement about living organisms is not correct?

A. Living organisms create energy.

B. Living organisms maintain homeostasis.

C. Living organisms reproduce.

D. Living organisms have adaptations.

E. Living organisms grow and develop.

A.

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5

Organs are composed of tissues, which are composed of cells. This is an example of which characteristic of life?

Living things have levels of hierarchical organization.

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6

All the  birds called cardinals (Cardinals cardinalis) in a forest would comprise a…

population

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7

Jennifer wants to use the brand of fertilizer that gives her the most tomatoes from each plant. She breaks her plants into groups and uses a different brand of fertilizer on each group. The experimental/independent variable is represented by

brand of fertilizer

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8

Jennifer wants to use the brand of fertilizer that gives her the most tomatoes from each plant. She breaks her plants into groups and uses a different brand of fertilizer on each group. The response/dependent variable is represented by

amount of fruit produced by the tomato plant

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9

When researchers test a new human cancer drug using mice, the mice constitute the

model

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10

How can you control confounding variables?

randomization, restriction, and matching

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11

True or False? Once scientific theories are found to be true, they are always true.

False

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12

Emerging diseases enter the human population due to…

new interactions with other organisms that can then act as vectors of disease and changes in technology use that can expose humans to new infectious organisms.

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13

A moth sees a streetlight at night time and flies toward the light, this shows…

response to stimulus

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14

The atomic mass of an element is determined by…

the number of protons and neutrons it contains

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15

If an element has an atomic number of 12, then…

the atom has 12 electrons

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16

Isotopes of a given element have…

the same number of protons but differ in atomic mass.

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17

A covalent bond is…

a sharing of electrons between two atoms

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18

When an ionic bond forms, electrons are…

transferred from one atom to another

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19

Which type of bond formation is responsible for the properties of water?

Hydrogen

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20

Which statement regarding acids and bases is correct?

A. Acids increase the pH, and bases decrease the pH.

B. Acids increase the proportion of hydrogen ions (H+), and bases reduce the proportion of H+.

C. Acids are harmful, but bases are not harmful.

D. Acids combine with bases to form sugars.

B.

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21

Since pure water is neutral in pH, it contains…

an equal number of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-)

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22

The lower the pH…

the more acidic the solution

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23

Water is a liquid at room temperature. This is due to…

hydrogen bonding between water molecules

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24

You notice that rain water forms "beads" on your car. This is an example of what property of water?

Cohesion

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25

What makes a molecule organic?

Containing a carbon and a hydrogen

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26

____ is a polysaccharide that is found in plant cell walls and accounts for their strength.

Cellulose

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27

Glycogen is a…

polysaccharide

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28

When two glucose molecules combine they form a disaccharide molecule and…

a water molecule

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29

Maltose is classified as a…

Carbohydrate

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30

Which type of lipids is the most abundant constituent of cell membranes?

phospholipid

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31

What fat that can be found in the human diet have the highest correlation with heart disease?

trans fats

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32

Cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and is an example of which type of lipid?

Steroids

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33

The _____ structure of a protein consists of the sequence of the amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.

primary

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34

A genetic mutation can cause a change in the sequence of the 20 amino acids used to build proteins. Such a change is a change to the protein's…

primary structure, but this will likely alter higher levels of structure as well.

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35

Hemoglobin is a protein composed of two pairs of polypeptide chains. What is the highest level of protein structure represented by hemoglobin?

quaternary

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36

What type of bond will connect the amino acids in a protein?

peptide

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37

What type of reaction is necessary to produce a dipeptide from individual amino acids?

Dehydration reaction

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38

Nucleic acids are polymers of…

nucleotides

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39

Which of the following statements is NOT true about fixed action patterns (FAPs)?

A. All the members of a species perform the exact same sequence of behaviors.

B. The behavior pattern is stereotyped.

C. The fixed action pattern is considered to be initiated by a sign stimulus.

D. FAPs require learning.

D.

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40

Male goats will attempt to mate with goats who resemble the female goat who raised them. This is an example of…

imprinting

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41

Imprinting is of benefit to organisms because it allows them to…

recognize a member of their own species

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42

Learned behavior that causes a family of baby ducks to follow their mother is called…

imprinting

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43

To train an animal, you try to reward each instance of desired behavior. In this way, you can eventually get pigeons to play ping-pong. This system of reward, where animals are given a reward each time they responded correctly, usually in a boxlike environment, is called…

operant conditioning

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44

A female peacock spider will only choose a mate with the proper markings and who performs the proper mating ritual. This is an example of…

sexual selection

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45

Natural selection might favor altruistic behaviors in closely related individuals because it…

increases the frequency of the altruistic individual's genes in the next generation

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46

A nephew has a genetic relatedness of ____ to an uncle?

1/4

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47

Siblings who are not identical twins have a genetic relatedness of _____?

1/2

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48

A child has a genetic relatedness of _____ to a parent?

1/2

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49

First cousins have a genetic relatedness of ______?

1/8

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50

Why should a female butterfly choose a vibrantly colored male for mating?

Brightly colored males are healthier and more likely to produce healthy offspring.

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51

The mating strategy in which a female mates with multiple males is

polyandry

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52

An example of territoriality is

A. barnacles attached to a boat bottom.

B. a red-winged blackbird singing to ward off other males and attract a female to the nest in his fence row.

C. a cloud of moths attracted to a light.

D. a swarm of mosquitoes hovering around a sweaty person.

B.

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53

A number of populations of different species interacting with one another in a natural environment, such as a rotten log, is called…

a community

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54

A number of populations of different species interacting with one another is called…

a community

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55

All the members of the same species that inhabit a particular area are termed a…

population

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56

Which of the following would be LEAST likely to have an effect on biotic potential?

A. the number of offspring per reproduction.

B. how often each individual reproduces.

C. how often a male performs a courtship display.

D. chances of survival until the age of reproduction.

C.

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57

When the number of births exceeds the number of deaths, this results in…

population growth

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58

Under what conditions would one expect a negative population growth rate?

death rate is greater than birthrate.

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59

A population expanding at the rate of 2 - 4 - 8 - 16 - 32 - 64...etc., is in…

exponential growth

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60

A populations under exponential growth would be graphed with  ______-shaped curves.

J

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61

The maximum population that the environment can support for an indefinite period of time is called the…

carrying compacity

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62

The carrying capacity of the environment for a species is determined by…

the limited productivity of the environment and the environmental resistance to the biotic potential of the organism.

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63

In a species with a type III survivorship curve many individuals…

die early in life

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64

In a species with a type I survivorship curve most individuals…

die of old age

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65

Interaction between two species in which one feeds on the other is…

predidation

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66

Interaction between two species as both attempt to use the same environmental resources is…

competition

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67

A form of symbiosis in which one participant benefits and the other apparently is not benefited nor harmed is…

commensalism

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68

A relationsip in which two species live very close to each other and have close interactions is…

symbiosis

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69

A form of symbiosis in which both participants benefit is…

mutualism

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70

Which is NOT a density-dependent factor?

A. food supply

B. disease

C. shelter or nest space

D. weather

D

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71

A population of 100 butterflies living on an acre of land loses three-quarters of its members when a sudden freeze in the spring occurs just after they emerge as caterpillars. This population has undergone a reduction in population size due to…

a density-independent factor.

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72

Ecology is best defined as the study of…

organisms as they interact with other organisms and with their physical surroundings

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73

All of the organisms living in your front yard represent a(n) _______, while the blue jays represent a(n) ______.

community; population

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74

Consider that a species of salmon lays 20,000 eggs per pair when it spawns and dies. At the end of five years, an average of one pair of mature salmon from this group of hatched eggs returns again to spawn in the parent stream (19,998 have died). What is the per capita rate of increase?

zero, because there is exact replacement of the previous generation

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75

A population age structure diagram in which the birthrate is high and the population is mainly young would be best represented by a graph with a…

pyramid shaped

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76

The demographic transition, where population growth speeds up and then slows in developed countries, is due to a…

decreased death rate followed by a decreased birthrate

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77

Which of the following is a biotic factor in an ecosystem?

parasites

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78

An ecosystem consists of what two components?

biotic and abiotic factors

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79

In the biosphere, which of the following is NOT constantly recycled?

energy

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80

Ecologists have found that…

energy flows one way through an ecosystem and requires an external input

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81

Energy flow in an ecosystem is NOT cyclic because energy is…

no longer useful when it is converted to heat

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82

Fungi and bacteria are detritus-feeders, also known as…

decomposers

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83

Animals that feed on both plants and other animals are called

omnivores

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84

Which type of organism produces food in an ecosystem?

autotroph

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85

The primary consumers that feed directly on green plants are called…

herbivores

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86

Which kind of organism would be most likely to perform photosynthesis?

autotroph

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87

The first step in the use of carbon by living organisms occurs in…

green plants

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88

Which of the following is NOT a carbon reservoir?

A. living organisms

B. dead organisms

C. coal

D. ammonium and nitrates

D.

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89

Which of the following statements is false regarding the carbon cycle?

A. Terrestrial plants take up carbon dioxide from the air.

B. Aquatic plants exchange carbon dioxide directly with the atmosphere.

C. Algae produce food for themselves and for heterotrophs.

D. When organisms respire, a portion of carbon is returned to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

E. The amount of bicarbonate in the water is in equilibrium with the amount of carbon dioxide in the air.

B.

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90

Atmospheric carbon serves as…

an exchange pool for carbon that is available to plants for photosynthesis

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91

A carbon atom starts as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is brought into a sugar molecule by a plant. The sugar is eaten by a deer and is converted back to carbon dioxide in a deer mitocondrion. The carbon dioxide is then exhaled back to the atmosphere Through what parts of the carbon cycle did it pass.

exchange pool to living organism to living organism to exchange pool

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92

Which 2 biogeochemical cycles involves bacteria move chemicals into or out of the exchange pool?

A. Water

B. Nitrogen

C. Carbon

D. Phosphorous

B., C.

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93

Given that most nutrients can dissolve into water, which of the following statements is FALSE?

A. Runoff water can pollute a pond, stream, or lake if excess nutrients are carried in the water.

B. Water can leach nutrients out of the soil and carry it away from an ecosystem.

C. Water can carry nutrients into the soil, where they are available to plants through their roots.

D. N2 dissolves into water droplets and is carried to the earth to be used by producers.

D.

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94

When a plant produces food by photosynthesis, what is the fate of food stored as sugars, starches, etc.?

A portion of the food is used by the plant itself in cellular respiration and the rest is consumed by animals or by decomposers.

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95

Energy flow in an ecosystem is NOT cyclic because energy is…

no longer useful when it is converted to heat

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96

Inverted ecological pyramids can occur in what habitat?

ocean shorelines with algae

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97

Which organisms would be considered a decomposer?

mushrooms

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98

How are omnivores, carnivores, and herbivores similar?

They are all consumers and produce carbon dioxide

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99

Once a nutrient enters an ecosystem, it…

can cycle endlessly in that ecosystem

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100

True or False? A bird that lives in a forest is a part of the forest ecosystem.

True

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