A&P 3

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What is the atmospheric pressure at sea level?

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1

What is the atmospheric pressure at sea level?

760 mmHg

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2

What is the respiratory pressure gradient?

760 Vs 758 mmHg

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3

How much inhaled air is Oxygen?

21%

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4

How much of exhaled air is oxygen?

16%

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5

How much of inhaled air is CO2?

0.04%

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6

How much of exhaled air is CO2?

4%

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7

How much of inhaled air is nitrogen?

79%

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8

How much of exhaled air is nitrogen?

79%

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9

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

Extract O2 from air Excrete CO2 and H20 Vapour Ventilate the lungs Allows us to produce sound

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10

Does the respiratory system maintain pH of blood?

Yes

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11

What is the standard pH range of blood?

7.35<7.45

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12

What are the upper resp system components?

Nose nasal cavity Pharynx (3 parts)

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13

What are the components of lower resp tract?

Larynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli

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14

The nose is the primary...

passageway for air entering the respiratory system

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15

What are some functions of the nose?

Filters, warms, humidifies

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16

How does the nose warm air?

When air passes the vascular tissue it heats the gas to body temperature

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17

What is the structure of the nose?

External nares, nasal vestibule, septum, roof, lateral walls, floor

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18

What tissue does the nasal conchae contain?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

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19

The pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium contains

Numerous mucous/goblet cells Traps particles

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20

What are some oral cavity landmarks?

Teeth Lips Tongue Hard/Soft palate Uvula

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21

The pharynx has how many regions?

3

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22

How many body systems share the pharynx?

2

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23

The pharynx is 11cm long? T or F?

F - its 13cm

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24

Where can you find the pharynx?

Anterior to cervical vertebrae, posterior to nasal/oral cavities.

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25

Where does the oropharynx live?

Posterior to oral cavity

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26

Where does the oropharynx cover?

Soft palate to hyoid bone (base of tongue)

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27

How many tonsils do we have?

2 pairs

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28

How many openings are in the nasopharynx?

2 internal nares 2 eustachian tubes

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29

The nasopharynx contains which tonsils?

pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)

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30

What epithelium lines the nasopharynx?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

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31

What functions does the oropharynx look after?

Respiratory and digestive

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32

What is the oropharynx lined with?

Squamous stratified epithelium

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33

The laryngopharynx is the WIDEST part of the resp tract?

FALSE - It's the narrowest

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34

Where does the laryngopharynx extend from?

hyoid bone to esophagus

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35

Why is the laryngopharynx lined with stratified squamous epithelium

So it resists abrasion and pathogen invasion

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36

What are the cartilages of the single larynx?

Thyroid Epiglottis Cricoid

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37

What are the cartilages of the paired larynx

Corniculate Arytenoid Cuneiform

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38

WHAT ARE THE BLOOD PRESSURE SOUNDS CALLED?

KOROTOFF SOUNDS

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39

The thyroid cartilage is what shaped?

Shield shaped

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40

What makes the thyroid cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

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41

The thyroid cartilage is prominent at the

anterior surface (adams apple)

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42

Cricoid cartilage is paired, T or F?

F

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43

What makes cricoid cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

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44

Where is the cricoid cartilage situated?

Inferior to thyroid, anteriorly by cricothyroid ligament

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45

What shape is the epiglottis?

Shoehorn shaped

<p>Shoehorn shaped</p>
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46

Is a larger/more horeshoe epiglottis associated with adults or children?

Children

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47

How is the epiglottis attached?

Inner surface of anterior wall of thyroid cartilage

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48

Which bone does the epiglottis rise above?

Tongue and body of hyoid bone

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49

When swallowing, the epiglottis folds over the ....

glottis

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50

What are some functions of the larynx?

Production of sound Protect lower tract Passageway for air

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51

The trachea is a X but Y tube

Tough but flexible

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52

Where does the trachea end?

Level of 5th thoracic vertebra

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53

How wide is the trachea?

2.5cm

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54

The trachea is 20cm in length, T or F?

F, it is 10-11cm

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55

How many rings of cartilage are in the trachea?

16-20. These are C shaped

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56

Does the trachea divide?

Yes, it bifurcates at the carina

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57

The trachea splits into the

R and L primary bronchus

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58

Which is wider and shorter, the R bronchus or L

The right bronchus

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59

How long is the bronchus

2.5cm

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60

How many branches does the R bronchus divide into?

3, 1 for each lobe

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61

How many branches does the L bronchus divide into?

  1. 1 for each lobe.

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62

What are the components of the bronchial tree?

Primary bronchi, secondary (lobar) bronchi, tertiary bronchi (segmental bronchiole)

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63

What shape are the lungs?

Cone shaped

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64

Why is the base of the lungs concaved?

To adhere to diaphragm

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65

Is there a space between the mediastinum?

Yes

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66

How many layers is the pleura

2

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67

Parietal pleura covers

thoracic cage, continuous in visceral layer

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68

What covers the lungs?

visceral pleura

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69

The potential space in the pleura contains

Lots of fluid

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70

Inflammation of the pleura will cause

pain

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71

What other things can fill the pleura?

Pneumothorax (air) Haemothorax (Blood)

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