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anatomy

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177 Terms

1

anatomy

the structure of an organism

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2

applied anatomy

also known as clinical anatomy; application of anatomical study; treatment & diagnosis of a disease

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descriptive anatomy

description of individual body parts; no reference to disease

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pathological anatomy

changes in structures & how they relate to different types of diseases

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physiology

the study of the function of the living organism and its parts, as well as the chemical processes involved

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midsaggital plane

cuts the body in right and left halves

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transverse planes

cuts upper and lower halves of the body

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frontal plane (coronal)

results in front and back portions of the body

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anterior (ventral)

front surface of the body

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10

posterior (dorsal)

toward the back

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rostral

towards the head

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12

epithelial tissue

superficial (outer) layer of mucous membranes and the cells making up the skin (surface covering of body and linings of cavities/passageways); provides a barrier, like skin

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connective tissue

composed of intercellular material, known as the matrix, to which the cells are bound, can be solid, liquid, gel-like; supports and protects

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muscular tissue

contractile tissue; capable of being stimulated to contract; consists of voluntary (striated), involuntary (smooth), and cardiac muscle

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nervous tissue

highly specialized communicative tissue; consists of neurons that take on a variety of forms; transmits info between neurons, sensory receptors

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tissue aggregates

conjunction/collection of different tissues into a mass

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fascia

sheet-like membrane surrounding organs

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ligaments

bind organs together or holds bones to bones or cartilage

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tendons

attach muscle to bone or cartilage

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20

bones

along with cartilage provide the structure for the body, articulating by means of joints

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joints

the union of bones with other bones, or cartilage with other cartilage

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22

axial skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs

  • 80 bones

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23

appendicular skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs

  • 126 bones

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24

origin

point of attachment; least amount of movement

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insertion

point of attachment; moves as a result of muscle contraction

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26

striated muscles

also known as skeletal muscle because it is the muscle used to move skeletal structures; voluntary/conscious control

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smooth muscles

muscular tissue of the digestive tract and blood vessels, involuntary control

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cardiac muscles

composed of cells that connect in a net-like fashion

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agonists

muscles that move a structure

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antagonists

muscles that oppose movement

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synergists

muscles that stabilize structures

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respiratory system

breathing for speech

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33

phonatory system

production of voiced sounds

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34

articulatory/resonatory system

used to alter the characteristics of the sounds fo speech

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35

nervous system

related to the central nervous system's control of speech process

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36

respiration

the exchange of gas between organism and its environment; requires muscular effort; goal is oxygenation of blood and elimination of carbon dioxide

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37

respiratory system functions

  • supplies the body with oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide

  • filters the air we breathe in

  • assists in producing sound

  • contains receptors for smell

  • rids the body of some excess water and heat

  • helps regulate blood pH

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38

Boyle's Law

all forces in nature seek balance and equilibrium

  • forms the basis for movement of air into and out of the lungs

  • if you decrease the volume the air pressure will increase

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39

vertebral column

33 segments of bone with a rich set of fossa & protuberances designed for function; supports ribs, houses spinal column, helps with movements

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40

cervical vertebrae

C1-C7

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41

superior articular facet

aids some movement; connects vertebrae together

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42

spinous process

attachment for muscles

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vertebral foramen

opening for spinal cord

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44

corpus (CV)

body

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transverse process

attachment for muscles

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46

C1

atlas

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C2

axis

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7 true ribs

direct attachment to the sternum

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3 false ribs

indirectly attach to the sternum

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50

2 floating ribs

do not attach to the sternum

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51

Ribs

elevate during inspiration

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52

Sternum

3 components:

  • manubrium

  • corpus

  • xiphoid process

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53

Manubrium

attachment for clavicle & 1st rib

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Corpus (S)

attachment for 5 more ribs

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Xipohoid process

anterior most attachment of diaphragm

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respiratory mucosa

a layer of cells that secrete mucus; found in nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx & trachea, can trap contaminants

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Nose

  • provides an airway for respiration, moistens and warms entering air, filters and cleans inspired air, resonating chamber for speech, detects odors in the air stream

  • internal nares, external nares, nasal conchae

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Internal nares

opening to exterior

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external nares

opening to pharynx

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nasal conchae

folds in the mucous membrane that increase air turbulence and ensures that most air contacts the mucous membranes

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61

pharynx

  • common space used by both the respiratory and digestive systems

  • originates posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and extends inferiorly near the level of the bifurcation of the larynx and esophagus

  • common pathway for both air and food

  • force swallowed food into the esophagus

  • nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

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62

lower respiratory tract

  • conducting airways

  • respiratory portion of the respiratory system

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63

conducting airways

  • trachea

  • bronchi

  • up to terminal bronchioles

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respiratory portion of the respiratory system

  • respiratory bronchioles

  • alveolar ducts

  • alveoli

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trachea

flexible tube; 11 cm; 15-20 c-shaped tracheal cartilages; starts @ end of larynx; becomes left & right bronchi @ carina; lined by cilia

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larynx

"voice box," prevents swallowed materials from entering the lower respiratory tract (reflexive cough); conducts air into the lower respiratory tract; produces sounds; 9 pieces of cartilage

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sound production

  • inferior ligaments = true vocal folds

  • superior ligaments = vestibular folds/false vocal folds

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68

bronchial tree

  • a highly branched system of air-conducting passages that originate from the left and right primary bronchi

  • terminate in terminal bronchioles

  • foreign bronchioles are more likely to lodge in the primary bronchus

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69

alveoli

small air sacs; each lung contains approx. 300-400 million

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70

gas exchange

can take place in the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts

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71

lungs

  • apex - projects superiorly to a point that is slightly superior and posterior to the clavicle, top portion

  • base rests upon the muscular diaphragm

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left lung

  • divided into 2 lobes by oblique fissure

  • smaller than right lung (to fit in cardiac region)

  • cardiac notch accommodates the heart

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right lung

  • divided into 3 lobes by oblique and horizontal fissure

  • located more superiorly in the body due to liver on the right side

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74

pleura

the outer surface of each lung and the adjacent internal thoracic wall are lined with this serous membrane

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visceral pleura

the outer surface of each lung is tightly covered by this

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pleural cavity

the potential space between the serous membrane layers

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pleural effusion

occurs when fluid that accumulates between the two pleural layers; this can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs

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pneumothorax

abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space that separates the lung from the chest wall; may interfere with normal breathing

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79

quiet inspiration

needs only one muscle

  • elastic recoil: after muscles are stretched they recoil to their pre-stretched position

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80

forced inspiration

calls on many more muscles

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81

diaphragm

primary muscle of inspiration

  • divides the thoracic from the abdominal cavity

  • increases the vertical dimension of the thorax and provides for inhalation

  • muscles radiate out from central tendon

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82

external intercostals

  • raise the ribs

  • significant for speech

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83

parasternal portion of internal intercostals

helps elevate and slightly rotate ribs when expands

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84

levator costarum

elevates ribs

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85

serratus posterior superior

elevates ribs 2-5; upper ribcage of rib cage

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86

sternocleidomastoid

  • elevation of chin

  • helps elevate sternum and anterior portion of rib cage

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87

scalenes (anterior, middle, posterior)

  • stabilizes head; facilitates rotation

  • elevate first and second ribs

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88

checking action

requires the recruiting of the intra-abdominal muscles which allows you to control the release of air and release it little by little

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89

transverse abdominus

acts as antagonist to diaphragm

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90

external oblique

lowers ribs; antagonist to diaphragm

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91

internal oblique

lowers ribs

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92

rectus abdominus

lowers ribs; powerful vertical muscle

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93

quadratus lumborum

draws 12th ribs downwards

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94

passive expiration

we let the forces inherent to the tissues restore the system to a resting position after inspiration (driven by forces of elasticity and gravity); natural restorative processes

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95

active expiration

we use muscular effort to push the air out of the lungs; involvement of the muscles

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96

elasticity

  • 1/2 active forces in passive expiration

  • lungs are highly elastic, porous, sponge-like tissue

  • tend to expand as soon as compression is released, volume increases

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97

gravity

  • when standing/sitting upright, gravity acts on ribs to pull them back after they expanded

  • also works to maximize overall capacity by pulling abdominal viscera down, leaving more room for lungs

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98

gas exchange

  1. ventilation

  2. distribution

  3. perfusion

  4. diffusion

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99

ventilation

actual movement of air in the conducting respiratory pathway

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100

distribution

air is distributed to the alveoli

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