Social 20-1 World War and Genocide Exam

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Allied Powers (WWI)

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Terms for World War One and Two, the Holocaust, and Genocides.

152 Terms


Allied Powers (WWI)

Britain, France, Russia, and Italy.

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Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria

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Long-term causes of WWI


  • Made countries so enthralled in their nation that they don’t care about other nations.


  • Made tensions between countries thick as they fought for colonies.


  • Made countries intertwined causing more to fall to war quicker.


  • Made countries able to go to war easier and made the fighting more intense.

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Short-term causes of WWI

Assassination of Franz Ferdinand.

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The buildup or expansion of a country’s ability to wage war.

  • France and Germany doubling their armies 1870-1914 (the arms race).

  • Naval Race, Germany and Britain building up there Navy. Making 29 British dreadnoughts and 17 German.

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Agreements between nations set to help one another.

  • Triple Entente, (Britain, France, and Russia)

  • Triple Alliance, (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy)

  • Russia’s alliance with Serbia bringing them in.

  • Germany’s alliance with Austria-Hungary.

  • Britain’s alliance with Berlin bringing in the entire British Empire.

    The obligation made from the alliances pulled countries that wouldn’t be involved in the war into the war.

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A process in which a country overtakes another country or region’s political, economic, or social life.

  • First carried out by European nations against the rest of the world before WW1.

  • Mainly in Africa “Scramble for Africa”

  • It increased rivalry among the nations as they fought for control.

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When a group of people identify with each other and display a loyalty to their nation or country.

  • Caused tension and unrest to grow through Europe.

  • Nations having lots of different groups that all want independence.

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Assassination Of Franz Ferdinand

Archduke and his wife murdered June 28th 1914 in Sarajevo.

Murdered by Black Hand member Gavrilo Princip.

First attempt failed (bomb thrown at the couples car)

By coincidence Princip saw them outside a shop and fatally shot them.

Led to World War One.

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Schlieffen Plan

Military strategy to avoid 2-front war.

  1. Cut through Belgium and encircle France

  2. Beat France In 6 Weeks

  3. Race back and fight Russia (Russia would take longer to mobilize.)

    Key was SPEED!

    Failed b/c France and Britain were to strong and Russia Mobilized faster than expected.

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First Battle Of Marne

Sept 6-12 1914

Each side suffered 250,000 casualties.

led to the continued stalemate of trench warfare on the Western Front.

First Major conflict of WW1

Happened along the Marne River and was stop German advance as part of the Schlieffen plan.

The “Miracle at Marne” destroyed the Schlieffen plan

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Western Front (WW1).

The front lines of WW1 between the sea Switzerland.

Developed b/c of the race to the sea where each side tried to flank the other, which led to them running out of land.

Between Germany, France, and Belgium.

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Trench Warfare

Fighting in WW1 that developed on the Western Front.

Developed b/c of the failed Schlieffen plan and the weaponry being to advanced for soldiers top stay on the surface.

They were a series of opposing lines facing one another.

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Second Battle Of Ypres

April 22 - May 25 1915

First use of poisonous gas.

First time former colonies soldiers beat a European power in Europe.

Canadians withstood the gas attacks holding back the German advance.

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Battle Of Verdun

Feb 21 - Dec 18 1916

On of the largest battles WW1.

Between Germany and France in a hilly region of France. Germans wanted to capture the region to use for their guns.

The French had to bring reinforcements: The Germans were never able to take the city.

Longest single battle in history with devastating casualties.

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Battle Of Somme

July 1st - Nov 18th 1916

One of the bloodiest battles of human history.

Fought between France, Britain, and the Central Powers of Germany.

Plan was to draw German troops away from Verdun by making them struggle to maintain both battles.

Tanks were introduced by the British to try and take German trenches.

The Front line never really moved.

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Battle Of Vimy Ridge

April 9th-12th 1917

Fought between Canadian and German forces.

All Canadian units brought together to capture the German controlled land (A natural high point).

France and Britain had both failed to take the land.

Canadians used the “Creeping Barrage” technique to take the ridge.

3500 Canadians died, 7000 wounded.

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Battle Of Passchendaele

July 31st - Nov 10th 1917

AKA third battle of Ypres.

Goal was to push Germans out of the area.

Continuous fire and horrible conditions slowed the battle and caused a stalemate-like condition.

It was muddy and damp with people sinking in the mud and drowning in the craters made by shells.

Canadians were called in to take the ridge.

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What Happened in other countries during WW1


Czar Nicholas was forced to step down, initially democracy took over before the Bolsheviks took over. Russia was then taken out of war in 1917.


US joined in 1917 with the Allies, mainly due to the Lusitania being sunk by a German U-boat and killing 128 Americans. As well as the Zimmerman telegram where a German ambassador told Mexico to invade the US. The USA declared war April 1917 and sent 1-2 million troops.

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The end of WW1

Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped down and went into exile.

Germany arranged an armistice with the Allies.

WW1 ends at 11am on November 11th 1918.

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An agreement made by opposing sides in war to stop fighting for a certain time.

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Eastern Front WW1

The battle lines between Russia and Germany. It was less trench warfare and more traditional war.

Dissipated when Russia left the war.

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“The Big Three”

The name for the leaders of the three most powerful Allied countries at the Treaty of Versailles.

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Woodrow Wilson

The American President during WW1.

He wanted peace without victory, essentially avoiding a war of revenge.

Introduced his fourteen points. He wanted to eliminate the basic causes of war.

Encouraged self-determination, end to alliances, and reduction of military arms.

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Georges Clemenceau “Tiger”

French leader at the Treaty Of Versailles.

Wanted to crush the Germans so they couldn’t invade again.

Criticized Wilson’s 14 points.

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David Lloyd George

British leader at the Treaty of Versailles

Was considered the middle man, wanted to punish the Germans but not to much.

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Wilson’s Fourteen Points

  1. No secret treaties

  2. Economic free trade on seas during war and peace

  3. Equal trade conditions

  4. Decrease armaments

  5. Adjust colonial trade

    … skip a few

  6. Self-determination

  7. create league of nations

    14 points introduced by Woodrow Wilson at the Treaty Of Versailles

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Germany’s Punishment WW1 (BRAT)

Germany had to accept all blame for the war.

Germany had to pay 33million in reparations.

Couldn’t have an army over 100,000 men.

Lost territory.

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The making of amends for a wrong one has done, by paying money to or otherwise helping those who have been wronged.

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League Of Nations

Early form of the UN, with the goal to cooperate with economic and military actions against an aggressor country.

Formed by President Wilson, although America didn’t join.

Inevitably failed due to them not exerting any real power. Especially without America.

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Reactions to Versailles

Germany - Horrified at the reparations.

America - Felt actions against Germany was to harsh.

Italy - Did not get the wanted land

Japan - Their land claims weren’t recognized.

Russia - Angry they weren’t invited

China - Angry that Japan was given Germany’s sphere of influence.

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An extreme form of nationalism. Ultranationalists are often fanatically loyal to their nation and hostile and racist towards others.

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Benito Mussolini

Leader of Italy for most of WW2.

First Fascist leader, was an example for Hitler.

Uses anger caused by Versailles to rise to power in Italy. Feared communism.

Threatened to march on Rome so the King made him Prime Minister, he then outlawed any other party.

He was killed by the end of the war.

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Adolf Hitler

Leader of Nazi Germany WW2.

Born in Austria, but led the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi), took control summer of 1921.

Was a WW1 veteran that wanted to return Germany to it’s glory following the Treaty of Versailles.

Very notable for his use of propaganda.

Became German chancellor January 1933.

Commits suicide at the end of WW2.

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Joseph Stalin

Leader of the Soviet Union during WW2

Expanded the Soviet Union’s industrial capabilities very quickly..

He did not trust the other Allied Nations.

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Neville Chamberlain

Leader of Britain before WW2, before Winston Churchill.

Blamed for Britain’s policy of appeasement which saw Germany regain strength.

Resigned on May 10th 1940.

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Winston Churchill

Leader of Britain during WW2, after Chamberlain.

Widely regarded as the greatest wartime leader of the century.

Became Prime Minister May 10th 1940.

Refused to consider defeat, surrender, or compromise, he inspired Britain greatly.

Noted for his speeches and radio broadcasts which helped inspire the people.

Led Britain to victory over Nazi Germany.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Leader of the United States for most of WW2.

Longest serving US president (13yrs).

Worked closely with Churchill and Stalin in leading Allies against Germany.

He died in office just before the end of the war.

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Harry S. Truman

Leader of the United States for the final stages of WW2.

Took over after Roosevelts death.

The president that used atomic bombs against Japan to end WW2

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Emperor Hirohito

Emperor of Japan during WW2

Viewed as godlike with soldiers going to war to protect him. Was a figure head.

Oversaw Japan’s surrender.

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Hideki Tojo

Military leader of Japan during WW2.

Oversaw the military operations of Japan including the attack on Pearl harbor.

Executed at the end of the war for war crimes

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Allies (WW2)

Britain, France, Soviet Union, United States.

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Germany, Japan, Italy.

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Causes Of World War Two

The Versailles Treaty

Weak League Of Nations

“Stab-in-the-back “ Theory and the decadence of the Weimar Republic.

France’s False sense of security


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The Treaty Of Versailles

The agreement that ended world war one

Between Germany and the Allies.

One of the leading causes of World War Two.

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The Weimar Republic

The government in Germany from 1918-1933 that signed the Treaty Of Versailles.

Started when the Kaiser abdicated and ended when Hitler was elected.

They were doomed to fail because they had stabbed Germany in the back.

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The Maginot Line

French built concrete bunkers, factories, and railways so if they go to war again Germany couldn’t get in.

It didn’t go through Belgium so Germany bypassed it.

Lulled France into a false sense of security.

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A concept used to describe political systems whereby the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life.

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A radical totalitarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single-party state with a government led by a dictator.

People work for the nation or race rather than themselves.

Going back to the old social construct, kill people that don’t adhere.

Created by Benito Mussolini in Italy.

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National Socialist German Worker’s Party

Better known as Nazi.

Hitler took control in 1921, and many of the original members were killed to remove socialism and promote fascism.

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The Hitler Youth

Originally known as the Jungsturm and Jugendbund.

Existed from 1922-1945 the second oldest paramilitary group.

Deutsches - younger boys section.

Jungvolk - boys 14-18

Deutscher Madel - League of German Girls.

Viewed as the future of the Nazis, indoctrinated anti-semitism. Instil the motivation to fight.

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Schutzstaffeln (SS)

“Protection Squadron”

A major paramilitary organized under Hitler and the Nazi’s.

Built under Nazi ideology under Heinrich Himmler’s command and was responsible for many crimes against humanity during WWII.

Stressed total loyalty and obedience to orders under threat of death.

Entrusted with much of the executions.

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Coup d’etat

The sudden, illegal deposition of a government usually in a small group of the existing state establishment, usually military, to replace the deposed government with another body.

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The Beer Hall Putsch

An attempted coup d’etat by Hitler and the Nazis on 8-9 November 1923.

Quickly failed because they were very drunk and the sheriff and government got to the hall before them, arresting the group.

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Mein Kampf

Hitler’s novel

Autobiographical account of his movement and the underlying ideology.

Talked about German nationalism, anti-antisemitism, and lebensraum.

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Living space and is the concept of German expansion.

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Reichstag Building

A historical building in Berlin, Germany constructed to house Reichstag, parliament of German Empire

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Hitler in Power.

Became chancellor of Germany in January 1933.

Immediately started building up the German army and weapons. Introduced compulsory military service.

Persuaded President Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag.

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Reichstag Fire and fire decree.

Reichstag set on fire February 1933, they don’t know how it started.

Day after Hitler asked for and received the Reichstag fire decree.

Used to suspend most civil liberties and was used by Nazi’s to ban publications that were not Nazi friendly. Gave Hitler emergency power and said that the fire was a communist plot to take over Germany.

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The Enabling Act

Passed by Germany’s Reichstag and signed by president Paul von Hindenburg on March 23rd 1933.

Hitler legally obtained complete power and became Fuhrer.

The act granted the Cabinet (Nazi) the authority to enact laws without the participation of the Reichstag for four years.

It kept getting extended.

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The dissemination of information aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large number of people.

It is often targeting nationalism and putting down enemy nations.

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A racist ideology that the Germans held saying that they the superior race.

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Allied Failures Pre WW2 (The Path to War)

German Military

Germany was strengthening their air force and rebuilding their air force. France and Britain condemned them but didn’t do anything.


Hitler sent troops back into the Rhineland despite it being demilitarized, France was angry but couldn’t act without British help.

German Gains Allies

Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and welcomed German support, but Germany and Italy helped each other.

Austria Annexed

Germany goes into Austria and takes part of the land. Britain acknowledged the actions but did nothing, proving their weakness.

Czechoslovakia Taken.

Hitler then went to take Czechoslovakia, European powers were scared to stop him so they met at the Munich conference and met the demands. Confirming to Hitler that they are weak.

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Rome-Berlin Axis

October 1936

Mussolini and Hitler conclude an agreement that recognized their common political and economic interest.

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Anti-Comintern Pact

November 1936

Germany and Japan conclude the pact that agreed to maintain a common front against communism.

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The policy of settling international quarrels by admitting and satisfying grievances through rational negotiation and compromise, thereby avoiding the resort to an armed conflict.

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Non-Aggression Pact.

The agreement between Stalin and Hitler that they would not invade each other’s nations.

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Start of World War two

On September 1st 1939 Germany invaded Poland to get back Danzig.

During the invasion 50,000 Aryan looking children were kidnapped and sent to Germany for adoption.

France and Britain then declared war on Germany.

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Total War

What the second world war is considered.

The level of national mobilization of resources on all sides of the conflict, the battle space being contested, the scale of the armies, navies, and air forces raised through conscription, the active targeting of civilians. The general disregard for collateral damage and the unrestricted aims of belligerents on an unprecedented and unsurpassed, multi-continental scale.

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Compulsory enlistment to state services, usually the armed forces.

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Germany, Italy, Japan.

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Lightning War

Military doctrine that is all about speed

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“Phony War”

The winter of WW2 were nothing happened. Ended April 9th 1940, with another blitzkrieg against Denmark and Norway.

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Battle Of France

Germany invaded France May 10th 1940.

The Maginot Line was taken down by a flanking movement that rendered it useless.

British troops in France had to evacuate through Dunkirk.

June 10th Italy also invaded France, France surrendered 12 days after (June 22nd 1940). France was then divided into German and Italian occupation zones.

Germany forced France to sign the armistice in the same carriage that Germany had to in WW1.

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Dunkirk Evacuation

It was expected to only be able to rescue 20,000-30,000 men but they saved 338,000 men.

It saved many of the soldiers, both British and French, giving the Allies hope and preventing a complete collapse in the Allied cause.

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Battle of Britain

The Germans began an air superiority campaign over Britain to prepare for a land invasion (1940).

Germany launched a major offensive against naval and airbases, as well as cities to break morale.

Britain had radars that alerted the British pilots of the incoming attack.

Used British aircraft like the Spitfires and the Hurricanes.

Used the blitz (Germans bombing British cities and watching them burn).

Britain withstood the attacks.

The Queen and Princesses refused to evacuate.

Ended in September.

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The Battle of The Atlantic

The longest continuous military campaign in WW2 from 1939-1945.

Had U-boats and other warships of the German Kriegsmarine (navy) and aircraft of the Luftwaffe (air force), against the Royal Navy, Royal Canadian Navy, United States Navy, and Allied merchant ships.

Convoys going from North America to Britain and the Soviet Union were protected by navies and air force.

The Allies had to get more food to Britain than Germany could sink.

The battle got much easier when the United State brought their industrial power to the fight.

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Tripartite Pact

The end of 1940.

United Japan, Italy and Germany making the Axis.

Stated that any country, with the exception of the Soviet union, that went to war against one of them had to fight all of them.

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Operation Barbarossa

On June 22nd 1941 Germany and other Axis members invaded the Soviet Union. Largest military operation in history, was the turning point in Germany’s fortunes. Opened the Eastern front.

The targets were the Baltic region, Moscow, and Ukraine.

The final goal was to end near the Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan line, connecting the Caspian and White Seas.

Objective was to eliminate the Soviet Union as a power and get rid of communism. Generate lebensraum and eliminate the native population and gain access to strategic resources.

Although the Red Army was already preparing an attack this operation made them adopt a strategic defense.

The Kiev offensive was successful in eliminating four Soviet armies.

Germany had to stop right outside of Moscow as the troops were exhausted. The blitzkrieg phase had ended as it wasn’t working in big countries.

Despite Germany having many successes Germany still ended up being pushed out.

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Battle Of Stalingrad

Took place between August 23rd 1942 and February 2nd 1943, among the largest battle on the Eastern Front.

Nazi Germany and its allies fought against the Soviet Union for control of Stalingrad.

Put the city through intense Luftwaffe bombing making the city complete rubble.

Became house to house fighting, even with Germany controlling 90% of the city they never took it all.

November 1942 the Red Army launched operation Uranus which was a two pronged attack that targeted Romanian and Italian forces protecting the German 6th army flanks.

Causing the weakly held flanks to fall and the 6th army to be surrounded.

When winter set in the 6th army was freezing and starving to death, by early February German resistance stopped and the remaining parts of the army to either surrender or be destroyed.

Hitler refused to let his army surrender so he told them to commit suicide.

Was among one of the bloodiest battles with almost two million deaths. It made German victory in the east impossible.

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Pearl Harbor

December 7th 1941

Japanese carrier based aircraft’s attacked a US naval base in Hawaii

Japan hoped to destroy the entire fleet but the US aircraft carries were not in the harbor.

The USA declared war on Japan, four days later Hitler declared war on America.

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Invasion on the beaches of Normandy, June 6th 1944.

The first forces captured the beach within three months and landed two million soldiers and half a million vehicles.

Omaha beach was the most deadly.

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Battle Of Berlin

Designated the Berlin Strategic offensive operation by the Soviet Union. The final major offensive of WW2 in the European Theater.

Soviet Forces encircled the city and began its attack.

Lasted from April 20th 1945 to the morning of May 2nd and was one of the bloodiest battles in history.

Hitler committed suicide during the battle in his bunker.

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The Battle Of Midway

Most important battle of the Pacific Campaign of WWII, major naval battle.

June 4th-7th 1942.

Plan was to lure United States remaining aircraft carriers into a trap.

American codebreakers figured out the date and location of the ambush and warned the American Navy letting them to set up their own ambush.

The ships in the battle never actually saw each other.

4 Japanese carriers destroyed, only 1 American.

Proved that Japan was unable to keep pace with Americans shipbuilding and pilot training.

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A strategy used by the USA in the Pacific during WW2.

They did not capture every island, only the islands that were strategic for them.

It was much more efficient than taking every island.

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The island that a Japanese airfield was identified on during WW2.

16,000 Allied infantry (Mainly US) landed to take it.

6 months of battle with both sides facing heavy losses.

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Battle of Leyte Gulf

Largest naval battle in history.

October 23rd-26th of 1944.

Featured largest battleship in history and was the last time battleships engaged each other.

First time Kamikaze aircraft was used.

Japanese forces were so badly damaged they weren’t used again in battle.

After this battle Japan was deprived of resources, food, and was starving.

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Suicide pilots that would crash planes filled with explosives into ships and aircrafts.

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The Battle Of Iwo Jima

19th February - 26th March 1945

US fought for the capture of Japanese Island that had three air bases on it.

Was some of the fiercest fighting in the Pacific Campaign of WW2.

The US had a major advantage with both numbers and equipment so Japan tried to inflict as much damage as possible.

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Operation Downfall

The code name for the invasion of Japan that America had planned.

Never actually occurred because the Americans estimated that the casualties would have been to great based on previous battles.

Would have been the largest military engagement in history.

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Robert Oppenheimer

American physicist that directed the Manhattan project.

Was conducting research during WW2 to develop the first nuclear weapon.

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The Enola Gay

The plane that was used to drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

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Atomic Bombings

On August 6th 1945 the Enola Gay dropped the first ever nuclear attack on Hiroshima.

On August 9th the Boxcar dropped the second bomb on Nagasaki.

More than 240,000 people died because of these.

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End of WW2

On August 10th Japan made the decision to accept Allied terms.

The formal agreement was signed on September 2nd 1945 on an US battleship the Missouri

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The Holocaust

Greek word meaning sacrifice by fire.

Mass murder of the Jewish people by Nazi Germany.

Nazi’s called it the final solution.

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Prejudice or hatred against the Jews.

Increased during times of hardship as people looked for a scapegoat and the Jews were a minority.

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Nuremberg Laws

Laws put in place that made Jews second class citizens.

Deprived them of civil rights and stripped their citizenship.

Put in place in 1935 and were made to “protect” the German race.

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Holocaust Social Discrimination

The Nuremberg laws being enacted.

Jews banned from stores, schools, sports, parts of the cities etc.

No relationships between Jews and Germans allowed.

Jews had a J stamped on their passports and even had them labeling Jewish stores.

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Holocaust Economic Discrimination

Jews forced out of university, government, law, etc.

Jewish businesses boycotted.

Jewish businesses and property seized or forced to be sold at low prices.

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Kristallnacht (Night Of Broken Glass)


Jewish businesses (7,000) and synagogues (1,000) were destroyed by Nazi thugs.

91 Jews were murdered, 30,000 Jewish men were arrested.

Business owners who were affected were forced to pay for the damages.

This caused a large number of Jewish people to emigrate although they weren’t accepted in many places.

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