Bio final

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Biology

9th

101 Terms

1

Base

Ph greater than 7/ Oven cleaner toothpaste bleach

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2

Acid

pH less than 7

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3

control group

does not receive treatments

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4

Homeostasis

maintain internal conditions even through external changes

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5

Independent Variable

deliberately changed

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6

atom

basic unit of a chemical element

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7

Hydrogen Bond

the attraction between a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge and another atom with a partial negative charge.

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8

Monomer/Polymer/Macromolecule

M: small units P: many units joined together Ma: very large polymers

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9

Scientific Method

asking questions

hypothesis

experiment

data

conclusion

results

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10

Characteristics of life

made up of cells

develop and grow

respond to environment

reproduce

stable environment

metabolism

Dna

change over time

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11

Isotopes different from eachother

different in the number of neutron in the nucleus

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12

factors that effect enzymes

effected by temperature pH concentration

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13

Ionic Bond formed

when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

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14

Isotopes

atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons

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15

Cohesion

the attraction between the same molecules causes molecules to be drawn together.

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16

Adhesion

attraction of different molecules attracted to glass

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17

polar molecule

slightly negative and positive allows to stick with other substances

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18

compond

formed by combination of two or more electrons

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19

Ions

formed when the number of protons isn’t equal to the number of electrons

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20

Metabolism

all the chemical processes in the body

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21

element

that cannot be broken down distinguished by atomic number

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22

covalent bond

when atoms share electrons

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23

dependent variable

observed when the independent variable changes

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24

lipid bilayer

two layers of lipid molecules called phospholipids

acts as a barrier to a passage of molecules and ions in and out of cells

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25

similarities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

both have ribosomes/protein, DNA, cell membrane, cytoplasm

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26

difference of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

prokaryotic have ERE and don’t have mitochondria or nuclei. Eukaryotic have smaller ribosomes

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27

cell theory

cells building blocks

made up of cells

come from other living things

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28

selectively permeable

some substances can go through others cannot

to strongly charged or too big

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29

exocytosis

forces material out of cell no energy

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30

endocytosis

taking material into cell uses energy

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31

active transport

the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of a higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.

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32

isotonic

the concentration of solutes equal to solutes inside cells

stays the same

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33

hypertonic

higher concentration of solutes and lower concentration inside cells

cell strinks

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34

hypotonic

lower concentration of solutes higher in cell

cell bursts

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35

Osmosis

diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane

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36

Facilitated diffusion

diffusion of specific particles through transport proteins found in membrane

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37

diffusion

random movement from area of high concentration to low

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38

Eukaryotics

Animal and plant cells

Nucleus

milticelluar

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39

Prokaryotics

bacteria

no nucleus

unicelluar

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40

Monosaccharides

one unit of sugar Gluscose

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41

Polysaccharides

have many monosaccharide units joined together Sharch

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42

Disaccharides

two sugars bonded Fructose, sucrose

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43

polypeptides

many amino acids on a peptide bond

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44

Catalyst

substance that increase the reaction without being consumed Enzymes

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45

high energy bond in

Atp: 3 phosphate groups

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46

function of Atp

storing and transferring energy

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47

light-independent reaction

in stroma

absorb CO2

Transferr NADP+ and ADP

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48

light-dependent reaction

Adsorb sunlight/H2O

produce Waste

in thylakoid

transfer electrons NADP-H and ATP

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49

photosynthesis

Energy from the sun is captured in a process called

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50

NADP+

NADPH

+ is an empty truck

H is load of electrons

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51

Thylakoid

flattened sacs inside chloroplast

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52

Pigments

plants gather sun energy with light-absorbing molecules called

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53

Heterotrophs

eat other living things

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54

Autorophs

make own food

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55

Atp

energy from the food we eat converted to a molecule

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56

Chlorophyll

absorbs energy transferred to electrons

absorbs red and Blue reflect green

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57

equation for Phtotsynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

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58

1 calorie

is 1000 calories

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59

cellular respiration

process that release energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen

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60

aerobic

requiring oxygen

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61

anaerobic

no oxygen

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62

glycolysis

reactions that extract energy from glucose by splitting it into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvates.

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63

matrix

the material or tissue a specific part of mitochondrion.

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64

electron transport chain

electrons are passed from one molecule to another, and energy released in these electron transfers is used

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65

alcoholic fermentation

producing ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide

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66

lactic acid fermentation

fermentation that breaks down sugars to produce energy in form of ATP does not need oxygen

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67

pyruvic acid

supplies energy through Krebs cycle

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68

NAD+

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69

NADH krebs Cycle

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70

Citric acid Cycle

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71

biosphere

group of ecosystems that have similar climate and communities

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72

species

individuals/breed

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73

biomes

earth

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74

communities

group

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75

population

one species

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76

ecology

is the study of interactions between interactions and their environment

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77

ecosystem

community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

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78

food chain

shows how the transfer of energy from the sun to producer to primary consumer to secondary consumer to tertiary consumer

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79

biotic factor

a living organism that shapes its environment

plants, funigi, birds

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80

abiotic factor

a non-living part of an ecosystem that shapes its environment.

temperature, light, water

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81

chemosynthesis

when sunlight is not available organisms use inorganic substances other than sunlight to make sugar and oxygen

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82

levels of organization

Organism → Population → Community → Ecosystem → Biosphere

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83

decomposers

make room for new animals by decaying dead plants and animals

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84

producers

any kind of green plant use energy to make food

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85

consumers

providing energy to other organisms regulating pop growth

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86

amino acid

molecules that combine to form proteins

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87

lipid

compounds that are fatty acids

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88

nucleic acid

store and transfer DNA

Monomer: nucleotide

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89

Protein

building body tissue speed up chemical reactions

Monomer: Amino Acid

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90

Lipids

store energy hormones cell membrane

Glycerol Fatty acid

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91

Carbohydrates

Quick energy-building molecules

Monomers: Monosaccharides

Polymer: polysaccharides

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92

Glycolysis location

Cytoplasm

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93

Krebs cycle and electron transprt chain location

Mitocondria

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94

Krebs Cycle and Electron transport require

Oxygen is required

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95

Glycolysis does not need

Oxygen

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96

NAD+

pair of high-energy electrons and a hydrogen ion

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97

why do living things need oxygen

used as the end electron acceptor for the electron transport chain in cellular respiration

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98

Glycolysis input and output

input two ATP two NAD+ and one glucose

output is four ATP, two NADH two pyruvate molecules.

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99

Krebs Cycle input outputs

consumes pyruvate

output carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH and FADH

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100

amount of ATP produced by Glycolysis Krebs Cycle and electron transport chain

Glycolysis 2 ATP molecules Krebs cycle produces 2 32ATP electron

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