Chapter 11 - Human Development

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germinal stage

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1

germinal stage

prenatal stage between conception - 2 weeks

  • conception, implantation, formation of placenta

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2

embryonic stage

prenatal stage between 2 weeks - 2 months

  • formation of vital organs and systems

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3

fetal stage

prenatal stage between 2 months - birth

  • bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply

  • age of viability

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4

during pregnancy, what is severe malnutrition linked to? (2)

  • birth complications

  • neurological problems

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5

what is moderate malnutrition during pregnancy linked to?

psychopathy in adolescence and adulthood

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6

what is maternal drug use linked to in adulthood? (3)

  • depression

  • suicide

  • criminal behaviour

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7

cephalocaudal trend

head to foot

  • babies gain control of the top of their body first

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8

proximodistal trend

centre-outward

  • babies motor control begins in the centre of body, then moves outward

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9

maturation

gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint

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10

temperament

an individual’s characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity

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11

longitudinal designs

track one group over time to assess them

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12

cross-sectional designs

comparing groups at one point in time

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13

what are the 3 basic temperamental styles?

  • easy

  • slow to warm up

  • difficult

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14

what temperamental style describes a baby who is happy, sleeps regularly, and eats well?

easy

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15

what temperamental style describes a baby who is less cheery, sleeps and eats well sometimes, and takes time to adjust to change?

slow to warm up

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16

what temperamental style describes a baby who is irritable, has emotional reactivity to change, and is erratic with sleeping and eating?

difficult

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17

what did thomas, chess, and birch study?

the 3 basic temperamental styles of babies

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18

what temperamental style is most likely to have mood problems?

difficult

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19

what did kagan and snidman study?

inhibited vs. uninhibited temperament

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20

does a baby who is shy, wary and timid have an inhibited or an uninhibited temperament?

inhibited

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21

does a baby who has less restraint and less fear have an inhibited or an uninhibited temperament?

uninhibited

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22

what can alter a child’s temperament?

parental reactions

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23

attachment

close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers

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24

what did harlow study?

MONKEYS!!!! and attachment

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25

what was the conclusion to harlow’s experiments?

attachment to mothers is from comfort, not nursing

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26

what did john bowlby add onto harlow’s research? (2)

  • said attachment wasn’t learned, rather it is biological.

  • said babies do cute things so caregivers want to keep them safe.

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27

what did ainsworth study?

separation anxiety, tested attachment in conditions where the mother left the room

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28

what are the four attachment styles that ainsworth studied?

  • secure

  • anxious-ambivalent

  • avoidant

  • disorganized / disoriented

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29

what attachment style does a baby have who is fine when the mom leaves the room?

secure

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30

what attachment style does a baby have who is anxious in the presence of a stranger even when mom is there, cries when mom leaves, and continues crying when she returns?

anxious-abivalent

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31

what attachment style does a baby have who doesn’t care about the stranger, doesn’t pay attention to mom or care when she leaves?

avoidant

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32

what attachment style does a baby have who appears confused about how they should be interacting with their mother?

disorganized / disoriented

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33

what attachment style is more likely when parents are a predictable, stable influence in a child’s life?

secure

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34

what are the 3 components of stage theories?

  • progress through stages in order

  • progress through stages related to age

  • major discontinuities in development

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35

what did erik erikson study?

psychosocial crises determining balance between opposing polarities in personality

  • 8 stages of life

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36

what is stage 1 of erickson’s stage theory?

trust vs. mistrust

  • 1st year of life

  • rely on adults for basic needs

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37

what is stage 2 of erickson’s stage theory?

autonomy vs. shame / doubt

  • 2 - 3 years old

  • child begins to take some personal responsibility

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38

what is stage 3 of erickson’s stage theory?

initiative vs. guilt

  • 4 - 6 years old

  • children experiment and take initiative

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39

what is stage 4 of erickson’s stage theory?

industry vs. inferiority

  • 6 - puberty

  • learning to function socially, beyond family

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40

what is stage 5 of erickson’s stage theory?

identity vs. confusion

  • adolescence

  • forming a sense of identity

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41

what is stage 6 of erickson’s stage theory?

intimacy vs. isolation

  • early adulthood

  • to develop the capacity to share intimacy with others

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42

what is stage 7 of erickson’s stage theory?

generativity vs. self-absorption

  • middle adulthood

  • genuine concern for the welfare of future generations

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43

what is stage 8 of erickson’s stage theory?

integrity vs. despair

  • late adulthood

  • avoid dwelling on past mistakes and imminent death, instead finds meaning and satisfaction in life

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44

what did jean piaget study?

cognitive development

  • argued that the interation with the environment and maturation gradually alter the way that children think

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45

assimilation

interpreting new experiences using existing mental structures

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46

accommodation

changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences

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47

what are the 4 stages of cognitive development (piaget)?

  • sensorimotor (birth - 2 years)

  • preoperational (2 - 7 years)

  • concrete operational (7 - 11 years)

  • formal operational (teen years - early 20s)

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48

what is the key task in the sensorimotor period?

object permanence

  • the recognition that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible

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49

what is the key task in the preoperational period?

conservation

  • recognizing that the amount of a substance does not change just because the appearance is changed

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50

what do children master in the concrete operational period? (4)

  • reversibility

  • decentration

  • declining egocentrism

  • gradual mastery of conservation

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51

what is the key task in the formal operational period?

able to apply operations to abstract concepts

  • begin thinking in “degrees” (ex. how good / bad, on a scale)

  • systematic problem solving

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52

what are the key tasks to achieve conservation, according to piaget? (4)

  • centration

  • egocentrism

  • reversibility

  • animism

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53

centration

tendancy for children to focus on one aspect of the problem and ignore the rest (ex. height of beaker in piaget’s conservation task)

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54

egocentrism

only cognitively capable of taking their own perspective on issues

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55

reversibility

unable to mentally undo something

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56

animism

tendency to put human qualities into everything that they see

(ex. fire is angry, stuffed animal is sad)

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57

what are weaknesses to piaget’s theory? (3)

  • underestimates children’s cognitive development

  • does not address individual differences

  • does not address cultural variations

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58

what type of theory is piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

stage theory

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59

what type of theory is vygotsky theory of cognitive development?

socio-cultural theory

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60

what did vygotsky study? (3)

  • cognitive development and social interactions

  • culture

  • language acquisition

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61

what were vygotsky’s 2 main theoretical concepts?

  • the zone of proximal development (the space between what a learner can do without assistance and what a learner can do with adult guidance)

  • scaffolding (a student's ability to learn information through the help of a more informed individual)

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62

critical period

limited time span when it is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences

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63

sensitive period

optimal period for acquisition (developing a skill), but can still learn a new skill beyond this period

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64

what did kohlberg study?

the development of moral reasoning

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65

what are the 3 levels of moral reasoning in kohlberg’s theory?

  • preconventional

  • conventional

  • postconventional

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66

what is the pre-conventional level in kohlberg’s theory?

external authority

  • stage 1: punishment orientation

  • stage 2: naive reward orientation

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67

what is the conventional level in kohlberg’s theory?

rules maintain social order

  • stage 3: good boy / good girl orientation

  • stage 4: authority orientation

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68

what is the post-conventional level in kohlberg’s theory?

personal code of ethics

  • stage 5: social contract orientation

  • stage 6: individual principles and conscience orientation

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69

white matter

communication + linking different parts of the brain

  • starts to slow down in adolescence

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70

grey matter

thinking part of brain

  • starts to slow down in adolesence

  • synaptic pruning: areas of the brain you use in childhood are prioritized, other areas are not

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71

what do MRI studies show about the teen brain?

the teen brain is subject to considerable change (brain remains relatively plastic up to age 25)

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72

pre-frontal cortex

executive control center

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73

what did james marcia study?

identity statuses

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74

what are the 4 identity statuses?

  • foreclosure

  • moratorium

  • identity diffusion

  • identity achievement

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75

foreclosure

premature commitment

  • based on what other people want for us (parents, caregivers)

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76

moratorium

delaying commitment

  • engaging in experimentation with different roles

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77

identity diffusion

lack of direction

  • apathy, avoiding the question of what they are going to do

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78

identity achievement

sense of self

  • after consideration, arriving at sense of self and having a sense of direction

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79

emerging adulthood

18 - 25

  • delays in marriage and parenthood

  • subjective feeling of being “in between”

  • self-focused

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80

what is the “U” trend?

maritial satisfaction are highest at the beginning and end of the family cycle

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81

boomerang children

involves returing to live in parents home after moving out

  • conflict occurs when new roles have not been negotiated

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82

fluid intelligence

basic information-processing skills

  • declines with age

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83

crystallized intelligence

application of accumulated knowledge

  • remains stable with age

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84

episodic memory

personal experiences

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85

working memory

short term store

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86

procedural memory

actions, skills, operations

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87

semantic memory

general knowledge

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