Unit 2

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145 Terms

1

stressor definition

external/internal events or situations that place physical or psychological demands on a person (things)

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2

stress definition

internal psychological or physiological response to a stressor (feel)

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3

Yerkes-Dodson law

how anxiety affects performance

  • optimal/moderate stress correlates to strong performance

  • low stress = weak performance

  • high stress = impaired performance due to strong anxiety

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4

types of trauma and stressor-related disorders

  • adjustment

  • acute stress disorder (ASD)

  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

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5

adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) definition

stressful and potentially traumatic events experienced during childhood and infancy

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6

what percentage of adults have reported at least 1 ACE

70%, majority

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7

what percentage of adults have reported experiencing 4+ ACEs

20%

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8

in the first 2 years, a baby’s brain grows up to ____% of adult size

80%

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9

adjustment disorder definition

difficulty coping with or adjusting to a specific life stressor

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10

DSM-5 criteria for adjustment disorder

  • exposure to a stressor of any type or severity

  • symptoms begin within 3 months of exposure to stressor

  • one or both of the following:

    • marked distress is out of proportion to severity or intensity of stressor

    • significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning

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11

acute stress disorder (ASD) DSM-criteria

  • direct or indirect exposure to a traumatic stressor involving actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence

  • disturbance persists from 3 days - 1 month after exposure to trauma

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12

post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM-criteria

  • direct or indirect exposure to a traumatic stressor involving actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence

  • symptoms are present for at least 1 month

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13

requirements for diagnosis of ASD and PTSD

  • exposure to traumatic events

  • intrusion symptoms

  • avoidance

  • negative alterations in mood or cognition

  • arousal and changes in reactivity/hypervigilance

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14

traumatic events associated with ASD and PTSD

  • combat

  • sexual assaults, sexual harassment

  • violent crime or domestic violence

  • natural disasters

  • car accidents or work-related accidents

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15

outcomes after exposure to traumatic events w/resilience

  • __% of people have continuous dysfunction for up to 2 years after potentially traumatic event

5-15

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16

outcomes after exposure to traumatic events w/resilience

  • __% of people experience recovery over time to more stable baseline and functioning

15-25

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17

outcomes after exposure to traumatic events w/resilience

  • __% of people experience minimal-impact resilience following PTE

35-65, most common, small uptick in dysfunction following PTE and fairly quick baseline functioning

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PTE

potentially traumatic event

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19

________ abilities for resilience

innate

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20

biological dimension of ASD/PTSD: stressor activates what nervous system to release stress hormones

sympathetic

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21

biological dimension of ASD/PTSD: childhood stress can change stress-responsive neurobiological systems which increase the _________ to the disorder

vulnerability

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22

anger is a ______ emotion

secondary

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23

psychological risk factors for ASD/PTSD

  • anxiety, depression, hostility, anger

  • specific cognitive styles or dysfunctional thoughts (assume the worst)

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social dimension of ASD/PTSD

social support can buffer PTSD symptoms (protective factor)

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25

treatment for trauma-related disorders

  • antidepressants

  • prolonged exposure therapy

  • cognitive behavioral therapy

  • trauma-focused CBT

  • EMDR

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26

what is EMDR

involves visualizing traumatic experience while following a therapist’s fingers moving side to side

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27

other stressor-related disorders

  • asthma

  • high blood pressure

  • cardiovascular disease

  • headaches

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28

cluster headaches

  • severe pain around one eye

  • sweating

  • swelling

  • tearing

  • runny nose

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29

biofeedback training

learn to voluntarily control physiological processes in order to improve physical or mental health

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30

somatic definition

prominent physical or bodily symptoms associated with significant impairment or distress

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somatic related disorders: acute physical illnesses _____ or ____ _____ be present

may or may not

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32

somatic symptom disorder (SSD) definition

pattern of reporting and reacting to pain or other distressing symptoms, involves persistent thoughts or high anxiety about the symptoms of a potential illness

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33

somatic symptom disorder (SSD): pattern occurs for at least

6 months

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34

somatic symptom disorder (SSD): signs/symptoms

repeatedly checks for signs of illness or abnormality and worry even after shown evidence that they do not have a serious medical condition

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35

illness anxiety disorder definition

chronic pattern of preoccupation with having or contracting a serious illness

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36

associate illness anxiety disorder with what?

hypochondriac

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37

illness anxiety disorder: pattern must be present for at least

6 months

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38

illness anxiety disorder involves _____ or ___ ________ symptoms

minimal/no somatic

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39

conversion disorder is also known as what

functional neurological disorder

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40

T or F: conversion disorder has actual symptoms present

true

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41

conversion disorder definition

motor, sensory, or seizure like symptoms that cause motor weakness and abnormal movements

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42

conversion disorder symptoms are ________ with any recognized medical disorder

inconsistent

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43

conversion disorder: individuals are _____ _________ faking symptoms

not consciously

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44

what disorder manifests in seizure-like movements that may be the body’s response to underlying stress

conversion disorder/functional neurological disorder

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45

factitious disorder is also known was what

munchausen syndrome

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46

factitious disorder definition

symptoms of physical and mental illness are DELIBERATELY induced or simulated with no apparent incentive

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47

malingering

faking a disorder to achieve some goal/ “faking bad”

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48

T or F: factitious disorder is different than malingering

true

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49

what are the two types of factitious disorder

factitious disorder imposed on self or imposed on another

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50

factitious disorder imposed on self definition

presentation of oneself to others as ill or impaired

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51

factitious disorder imposed on another

pattern of falsification of physical and psychological symptoms in another individual

  • usually a mother who appears loving and attentive

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52

biological dimension of somatic symptom and related disorders

  • lower pain threshold/higher sensitivity to pain

  • hypervigilance of bodily sensations

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53

psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective of somatic symptom and related disorders

symptoms seen as DEFENSE against awareness of unconscious emotional issues

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54

cognitive behavioral perspective of somatic symptom and related disorders

catastrophizing, jumping to conclusions

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55

social dimension of somatic symptom and related disorders

  • rejection/abuse from family

  • feeling unloved

  • sexual abuse

  • previous physical illness

  • parental attentiveness

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56

sociocultural dimension of somatic symptom and related disorders

  • women’s psychological distress historically viewed as hysterical

  • discrimination directly impacts health

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57

dissociative identity disorder (DID) definition

disruption of identity, 2 or more distinct personality states, alterations in behaviors, attitudes, and emotions

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58

dissociative identity disorder (DID) is formerly called

multiple personality disorder

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59

dissociative identity disorder (DID) etiology

alternate personality states develop to help heal with difficult situations faced by primary personality

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60

dissociative identity disorder (DID) controversy

  • some believe clinician bias, faulty assessment, or therapeutic techniques influence the increase in case number

  • condition unintentionally brought about by a therapist

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61

what is an iatrogenic disorder

condition unintentionally brought about by therapist

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62

characteristics of mood symptoms

  • affect person’s well being, school, work, or social functioning

  • continues for days, weeks, months, years

  • often occurs for no apparent reason

  • involves extreme reactions not always explained by individual’s circumstances

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63

bipolar disorders involve episodes of what

hypomania and mania

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64

which is easier to identify in the beginning of bipolar disorders: hypomania or mania

mania

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65

what is the usual onset of bipolar disorders

teens and early 20s

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66

T or F: bipolar disorders occur much LESS frequently than depressive disorders

True

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67

T or F: bipolar disorders received much LESS medical attention than depressive disorders

false: more due to their level of disruption

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68

symptoms of hypomania (8/10)

  • increased levels of activity or energy

  • impulsivity and risk taking

  • person may talk excessively (uncharacteristic of normal)

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69

symptoms of mania (12/10)

  • even more pronounced mood changes than hypomania

  • variety of behaviors from euphoria to extreme irritability

  • cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning

  • may involve loss of contact with reality/psychosis

  • on such a high, no care for consequences, don’t feel like they can stop themselves

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70

diagnosis criteria for Bipolar I

  • at least 1 manic episode

  • major depressive symptoms common, but not required

  • symptoms present most of day, nearly every day for at least 1 week

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71

diagnosis criteria for Bipolar II

  • at least one major depressive episode (>2 week)

  • at least one hypomanic episode (>4 days)

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72

physiological symptoms of hypomania/mania

  • decreased need for sleep

  • high levels of physiological arousal

  • increased libido

  • weight loss due to high energy expenditure

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73

_____ depressive and hypomanic symptoms can occur in individuals without a mood disorder

brief

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74

_______ occurs both in depressive and bipolar disorders

depression

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75

evaluating mood symptoms

  • need to consider severity of symptoms

  • variability of symptoms

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76

for depressive disorders, it is important to ensure the individual has never experienced ____________?

episode of hypomania/mania

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77

emotional symptoms of depression

  • depressed mood

  • sadness, emptiness, hopelessness, worthlessness, low self-esteem

  • limited enthusiasm for things that previously brought joy and pleasure/anhedonia

  • irritable, anxious, worried

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78

anhedonia

lack of feeling pleasure in life

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79

major depressive disorder DSM-5 criteria

  • impairment in functioning for most of the day, nearly every day, for two weeks or more

  • at least one of the following:

    • depressed mood, sadness, or emptiness

    • loss of pleasure in previously enjoyed activities

  • four or more of the following:

    • weight alteration

    • atypical sleep patterns

    • restlessness

    • low energy

    • feelings of worthlessness

    • difficulty concentrating

    • preoccupation with death or suicide

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80

what was major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern called previously

seasonal affective disorder

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81

symptoms of MDD with a seasonal pattern

  • low energy

  • increased sleep

  • social withdrawal

  • carbohydrate craving

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82

persistent depressive disorder was previously called what

dysthymia

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83

for persistent depressive disorder how long do symptoms have to be present most of the day for more days than not to be diagnosed

2 years

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84

diagnosis for persistent depressive disorder requires ____ or more of what symptoms?

two or more necessary

  • feelings of hopelessness

  • low self-esteem

  • poor appetite/overeating

  • low energy or fatigue

  • difficulty concentrating/ making decisions

  • sleeping too much or too little

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85

premenstrual dysphoric disorder definition

serious symptoms of depression, irritability, and tension appearing the week before menstruation and remit soon after the onset of menses

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86

what is the concern surrounding premenstrual dysphoric disorder

concern about designating symptoms of normal biological function as a psychiatric disorder

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87

how can premenstrual dysphoric disorder be treated

changes in diet, exercise, stress management, vitamin supplements, SSRI, birth control

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88

what percent of women/AFAB have premenstrual dysphoric disorder

10%

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89

normal grief reactions

  • may last for several years

  • frequency and intensity diminishes

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90

prolonged grief disorder

  • persistent and debilitating grief response

  • important to distinguish prolonged grief disorder from MDD

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91

what percent of bereaved people experience prolonged grief disorder

10-15%

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92

Aaron Beck is associated with what type of thinking? what type of approach is this?

faulty thinking, cognitive/CBT approach

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93

what are the 3 types of faulty thinking

magnification/exaggeration, polarized thinking, overgeneralization

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94

magnification/exaggeration

overestimating the significance of negative events

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95

polarized thinking

an “all or nothing”, “good or bad”, and “either/or” approach to viewing the world

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96

overgeneralization

holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying these inaccurate beliefs to other situations

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97

albert ellis rational thinking perspective

  • belief system is a greater part of why we feel and behave the way we do, we disturb ourselves

  • change way of thinking will change your behaviors and emotions

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98

depression is ___-___% related to genes/genetics

40-50

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99

traits of negative self-schema

pessimism, negative view of self, feelings of helplessness

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100

corumination

constantly talking about problems or negative experiences with others, increases depressive risk (especially young women)

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