AP Gov Monster Vocab Quiz

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Pluralism

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Government

68 Terms

1

Pluralism

a theory of government in which many groups compete for policy

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2

Divided Government

When the president is from one political party and one or both houses of Congress are controlled by the opposing political party

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3

Open Primary

Elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on Election Day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests

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4

PAC

An organization that is registered with the Federal Election Committee and donates money to a candidate or campaign

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5

Categorical Grants

Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or "categories," of state and local spending

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6

Unfunded Mandate

a federal requirement that forces the states to spend their own money

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7

Judicial Review

The power of the Supreme Court to overturn a law or executive action as unconstitutional

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8

Bipartisan

Involving two political parties

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9

Implied Powers

Powers that are necessary to carry out an expressed power in the constitution

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10

Realignment

The displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period

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11

Grassroots Lobbying

Ordinary citizens raising awareness for a cause and pushing the government to adopt a particular policy

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12

Political Socialization

The process through which individuals in a society acquire political attitudes, views, and knowledge, based on inputs from family, schools, the media, and others

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13

Interest Group

An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy

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14

Oversight

Congressional committee hearings held to determine how well an agency is doing its job

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15

General Election

An election held to choose which candidate will hold office

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16

Caucus

Face-to-face meetings of party members at the local or state level to determine their party's candidate for offic

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17

Pork Barrel Spending

A provision in a bill that benefits a specific congressional constituency

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18

Direct Democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

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19

Block Grants

Federal money given to the states with few restrictions about how it should be spent

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20

Suffrage

The legal right to vote

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21

Republic

A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws

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22

Mandatory Spending

expenditures that the federal government is obligated to make, like entitlements and interest on the national debt

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23

Inherent Powers

powers that are naturally derived from the duties of a specific government position

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24

Dealignment

The gradual disengagement of people from the parties, as seen in part by shrinking party identification

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25

Franking Privilege

the free mail and electronic signature system used by members of congress

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26

Fiscal Policy

impacting the economy through taxing and spending in the budget

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27

Closed Primary

Elections to select party nominees in which only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote for that party's candidates, thus encouraging greater party loyalty

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28

Lobbying

efforts by an interest group or individual to contact a member of Congress and advocate for a particular policy

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29

Super PAC

a type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates

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30

Motion for cloture

a vote by 60 senators to end a filibuster

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31

Federalism

A way of organizing a nation so that two levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between units of government

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32

Casework

When congressional staff help a constituent solve a problem

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33

Political Party

A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy

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34

Executive Order

A rule issued by the president that has the force of law

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35

White House Staff

the president's personal assistants and advisors

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36

Issue Network (iron triangle)

A relationship between interest groups, agencies, and congressional committees in a certain policy area

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37

Gerrymandering

Drawing congressional district boundaries to benefit a group, usually a political party

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38

Filibuster

A lengthy speech designed to delay or kill the vote on a bill; used only in the Senate

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39

Entitlements

promises made by the government to an identifiable group of people who are guaranteed benefits

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40

Original Intent

making judicial decisions by considering what the founding fathers meant in the constitution

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41

Lame Duck Period

The time during which a president who has lost an election or has ended a second term is still in office before the new president serves

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42

Logrolling

When members of the Congress trade votes for favors in order to get the bills they support passed

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43

Selective Incorporation

he process by which the Bill of Rights has been applied to the states on a case-by-case basis through the fourteenth amendment

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44

Uncontrollable Spending

expenditures that the federal government cannot realistically reduce because they are required by law

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45

Fiscal Federalism

The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.

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46

Writ of Certiorari

a document issued by the Supreme Court if it has agreed to hear a case

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47

Litigation

lawsuit

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48

Monetary Policy

influencing the economy through federal interest rates, reserve rates, and the amount of money in circulation

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49

Expressed Powers

powers directly stated in the constitution

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50

Critical Elections

An electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party. Critical election periods are sometimes marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era

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51

Amicus Curiae

Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of influencing a court's decision by raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties

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52

Horse Race Journalism

news coverage that focuses on who is ahead rather than on the issues

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53

Political Efficacy

An individual's belief that his or her political participation can make a difference

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54

Party Polarization

when political parties move farther away from each other ideologically and also move away from the center

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55

Gender Gap

the tendency of men to support candidates from the Republican party at greater rates than women

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56

Pocket Veto

when a president does not sign a bill within 10 days when congress is not in session

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57

Redistricting

changing congressional district boundaries based on a new census

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58

Midterm Election

an election in which voters select members of Congress but not the president

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59

Independent Expenditures

money spent on ads that are not sponsored by a candidate or party

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60

Judicial Activism

An approach to decision making in which judges sometimes make bold policy decisions, even charting new constitutional ground

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61

Policy Agenda

the issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people involved in politics at any given point in time

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62

Cooperative Federalism

A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government

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63

Stare Decisis

A Latin phrase meaning "let the decision stand." Most cases reaching appellate courts are settled on this principle

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64

Devolution

A process by which the national government gives more power and authority to the states

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65

Demographics

The statistical characteristics of a population

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66

Single-Member Districts

the electoral system used to select members of the house of representatives

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67

Incumbent

an officeholder who is running for reelection

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68

Political Culture

an overall set of values widely shared within a society

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