Psychology Exam- 2

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concepts

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95 Terms

1

concepts

categories of linguistic information, images, ideas, or memories

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cognition- Sensations and information are received by our brains, filtered through emotions and memories, and processed to become thoughts.,

Sensations and information are received by our brains, filtered through emotions and memories, and processed to become thoughts.,

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functional fixedness

inability to perceive an object being used for something other than what it was designed for.

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role schema

makes assumptions about how individuals in certain roles will behave.,

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confirmation bias

only look at stuff that supports your opinion only,

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mental set

Persistence in approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past. (A set way of looking at a problem).

  • Becomes a problem when that way is no longer working..

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Lexicon

– the words of a given language.

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Grammar

– the set of rules that are used to convey meaning through the use of the lexicon.

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Phoneme

– a basic sound unit (ah, eh,).

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Morphemes

– the smallest units of language that convey some type of meaning.

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Semantics

– the meaning we derive from morphemes and words.

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Syntax

– the way words are organized into sentences.

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Language is constructed through

semantics and syntax.

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14

Who created the first modern IQ test for the French government?

Alfred Binet

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How are genetics related to IQ scores?

Shows how much % of correlation genetics have with iq test The correlations of IQs of unrelated versus related persons reared apart or together suggest a genetic component to intelligence.

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What is the Flynn Effect?

The observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the last.

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dyslexia-

An inability to correctly process letters. Most common learning disability in children. May mix up letters within words and sentences (letter reversals)

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dyscalculia-

Have difficulty in understanding numerical information and math

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dysgraphia-

A learning disability resulting in a struggle to write legibly. Have difficulty putting their thoughts down on paper

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Understand Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Analytical Intelligence

Academic problem solving and computation

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–Understand Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of practical

Street smarts and common sense

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Understand Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of creative

Imaginative and innovative problem solving

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23

What two intelligences make emotional intelligence?

  • Interpersonal Intelligence — Detecting and responding to others' moods, motivations and desires.

  • Intrapersonal Intelligence — Being self-aware and attuned with one's own values, beliefs and thinking.

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  • Interpersonal Intelligence —

  • Detecting and responding to others' moods, motivations and desires.

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  • Intrapersonal Intelligence

  • — Being self-aware and attuned with one's own values, beliefs and thinking.

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Understand and identify Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

  1. trust v mindset (0-1) basic needs and trust and mistrust

  2. Autonomy v shame doubt (1-3) develop a sense of independence

  3. initiative v guilt (3-6) take initiative on some activities, may feel guilt when failing

  4. industry v inferiority (7-11) develop self confidence in abilities

  5. identity v confusion (12-18) experiment with and develop identify and roles

  6. Intimacy vs isolation (19-29) establish intimacy and relationships with others

  7. Generaticity v stagnation (30-64) contribute to society and be apart of a family

  8. integrity v despair (65+) asses and make sense of life and meaning of contributions

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Psychosocial theory

  • emphasizes the social nature of development.

  • Argues that personality development takes place across the lifespan, not just in childhood.

  • Based on his belief that social interactions affect our sense of self (ego identity).

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schemata

(concepts used to categorize and interpret information)

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Define accommodation

- Change schemata based on new information

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assimilation

-  incorporates information into existing schemata.

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What is a fertilized egg called?

zygote

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What is a teratogen

any environmental agent (biological, chemical, or physical) that causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus.

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At what stage(s) are they the most dangerous? (teratogen)

implantation at around 14 days to around 60 days postconception.

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What is Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development

3 stages of moral development (learning to discern right from wrong).?

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Known Kohlberg in order

level 1: pre conventional morality- stage one- obedience and punishment driven by avoding punishment stage 2 individual interest behavior driven by self interest and rewards

Level 2: Conventional morality stage 3- interpersonal behavior driven by social approval- stage 4 authority behavior driven by obeying authority and conforming social order

Level 3: Post- conventional morality stage 5- social contract behavior driven by balance of social order and individual rights- stage 6- universal ethics behavior driven by internal moral principles

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What are Piaget’s Theory

  • Focused on children’s cognitive growth and theorized that cognitive abilities develop through specific stages. Piaget believed children develop schemata (concepts used to categorize and interpret information) to help them understand the world

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What are Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? What happens at each stage?

(laptop)

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What is the difference between fine motor skills

focus on the muscles in our fingers, toes, and eyes, and enable coordination of small actions (e.g., gripping a pencil).

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gross motor skills?-

focus on large muscle groups that control arms and legs and involve larger movements (e.g., balancing, running).

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Authoritative style –

  1. parents give children reasonable demands and consistent limits, express warmth and affection, and listen to the child’s point of view.

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Authoritarian style-

  1. parents place a high value on conformity and obedience, are often rigid, and express little warmth to the child.

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  1. Permissive style

  1. – parents make few demands and rarely use punishment.

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  1. Uninvolved style

  1. – parents are indifferent, uninvolved, and sometimes referred to as neglectful; they don’t respond to the child’s needs and make relatively few demands.

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Understand secure attachment

- child uses the parent as a secure base from which to explore.Caregivers are sensitive and responsive to needs.,

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disorganized attachment (insecure)

- show odd behavior around caregiver.Behaved oddly when mother left (froze/ran around erratically), tried to run away when mother returned. Common when child has been abused.

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and insecure types of attachment.- Avoidant.

often have a dismissive attitude, shun intimacy, and have difficulties reaching for others in times of need.

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insecure attachment (ambivalent)

are often anxious and preoccupied. They can be viewed by others as "clingy" or "needy" because they require constant validation and reassurance.

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What is the difference between Divergent and ----- thinking?-

Convergent thinking focuses on finding one well-defined solution to a problem. Divergent thinking is the opposite of convergent thinking and involves more creativity

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49

Understand Harlow’s Experiment with baby Rhesus monkeys and what it demonstrated.

  • Separated newborn monkeys from their mothers and presented them with two surrogate mothers. One made out of wire mesh, could dispense milk. One made from cloth, did not dispense milk. Monkeys spent time clinging to the cloth monkey and only went to the wire monkey for food. Results suggest that feelings of comfort and security are the critical components to maternal-infant bonding

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50

What is Cognitive Dissonance?-

psychological discomfort arising from holding two or more inconsistent attitudes, behaviors, or cognitions. Believing cigarettes are bad for your health, but smoking cigarettes anyway, can cause cognitive dissonance. To reduce cognitive dissonance, individuals can: Change their behavior. Change their belief through rationalization or denial. Add a new cognition

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51

Understand and know the difference between prejudice-

a negative attitude and feeling toward an individual based solely on one’s membership in a particular social group

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discrimination-

a negative action toward an individual as a result of one’s membership in  a particular group..

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scapegoating-

he act of blaming a person or group for something bad that has happened or that someone else has done

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groupthink-

The modification of the opinions of members of a group to align with what they believe is the group consensus. Groups often take action that individuals would not perform outside the group setting because groups make more extreme decisions that individuals do.?

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55

Understand Asch’s study-

These line segments illustrate the judgment task in Asch’s conformity study. Which line on the right—a, b, or c—is the same length as line x on the left?

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Understand Asch’s study on conformity-

he change in a person’s behavior to go along with the group, even if he does not agree with the group..

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57

What are the fundamental attribution error-

tendency to overemphasize internal factors as explanations/attributions for the behavior of other people and underestimate the power of the situation. People tend to fail to recognize when a person’s behavior is due to situational variables.

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self-serving bias

- tendency of an individual to take credit by making dispositional or internal attributions for positive outcomes but situational or external attributions for negative outcomes. Protects self-esteem - allows people to feel good about their accomplishments.

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What is the diffusion of responsibility?

- when people fail to take action because they assume that since others nearby are not acting, action is not appropriate.

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What was Milgram’s experiment on Obedience all about?-

the willingness of individuals to follow the orders of authorities when those orders conflict with the individual's own moral judgment.

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What was Milgram’s experiment on Obedience all about? What was the difference between the learner and the tester?

- concluded people obey either out of fear or out of a desire to appear cooperative--even when acting against their own better judgment and desires.

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62

Understand the different types of love.

  1. intimacy- sharing of details and intimate thoughts and emotions

  2. passions- physical attraction

  3. commitment- standing by the person

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What was Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study all about

- Iraqi prisoners of war were abused by their American captors in Abu Ghraib prison, during the second Iraq war. Social norms required guards to be authoritarian and prisoners to be submissive. Scripts influenced the way guards degraded the prisoners by making them do push-ups and removing privacy. Parallels abuse used by guards in Abu Ghraib prison.?

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What was Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study all about-What did it prove?

-people quickly conform to social roles, even when the role goes against their moral principles.

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65

What is the Foot-in-the-door technique of persuasion?

- persuader gets a person to agree to a small favor, only to later request a larger favor. Our past behavior often directs our future behavior (desire to maintain consistency.

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Why is online bullying so prevalent

- because you can do it anonymously and gets there faster?

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Why are girls more likely to bully someone online-

usually in those that have been victims of cyberbullying themselves

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What is a social role

- a pattern of behavior that is expected of a person in a given setting or group.E.g. being a student.

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script

- a person’s knowledge about the sequence of events expected in a specific setting.

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What types of prejudices exist?

Ageism, sexism,

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Homophobia

- Prejudice and discrimination of individuals based solely on their sexual orientation. Often results in discrimination of individuals from social groups. Widespread in U.S. society.

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What is the just world hypothesis?

- belief that people get the outcomes they deserve.

  • Based on the belief that the world is a fair place and therefore good people experience positive outcomes, and bad people experience negative outcomes.

  • Allows people to feel that the world is predictable and we have some control over life outcomes.

People who hold just-world beliefs tend to blame the people in poverty for their circumstances, ignoring situational and cultural causes of poverty.

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73

What is the difference between dispositionism

- the view that our behavior is determined by internal factors (attribute of a person such as personality traits and temperament)

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situationism

- the view that our behavior and actions are determined by our immediate environment and surroundings.?

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The type of concept that we know by a specific set of characteristics

Artificial Concepts

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The developmental theory that is said to proceed in a step-wise manner, with periods of growth interrupted by periods where growth is not occurring.

Discontinuous Trajectory

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You know what snow is because you have seen snow..

Natural concept

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Erik Erikson proposed the stage that many adolescents (12-18) go through

Identify vs role confusion

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The stage that Piaget states a child experiences that world through their ability to sense it and move towards it

sejnsorimeter

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Who identified and defined the psychosexual stages

sigmund Freud

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81

The moral stage that one goes through when one understand what they are doing is morally wrong, but they do it for a good reason (ex. saving a life).

Post conventional morality

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A term coined by Jean Piaget is when a child believes everyone thinks or feels like them

Egocentrism

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The type of attachment where the child is upset when the parent leaves, but they are easily calmed down when they return

secure attachment

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The psychosocial stage that Erik Erickson stated that older people go through

Integrity vs despair

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You are walking down the street and see someone has fallen, but keep walking by because you figure someone else will take care of it

Diffusion of responsibility

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86

Identical twins raised apart the highest similarity in this

IQ scores

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Name 2 of the 8 or 9 intelligences that Howard Gardner proposed

interpersonal, musical, linguistic

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During Harlows experiment with baby rhesus monkeys, he demonstrated what was just as important just as food and water to the baby monkey

contact comfort

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The type of intelligence that maintains information, skills, and stragities gathered through experience remains steady or improves through age

crystallized intelligence

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The theorist that promoted the idea that development is affected by ones culture as well as their interactions with their own environment

Lev Vygotsky

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At the sensorimotor stage, a child cannot understand something exists if they cannot see it

object permanence

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The stage where children understand events logically by lack the ability to think abstractly

concrete operational

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the type of thinking that is associated with creative intelligence

divergent thinking

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this is the third stage if Selye’s general adaptation syndrome

exhaustion

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the word for our evaluation of a person, object, or idea

attitude

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