PSY 246: Midterm

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frontal lobe

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220 Terms

1

frontal lobe

front of brain

<p>front of brain</p>
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parietal lobe

above occipital lobe

<p>above occipital lobe</p>
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occipital lobe

back of brain, vision

<p>back of brain, vision</p>
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temporal lobe

under the frontal lobe

<p>under the frontal lobe</p>
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5

What are the cerebral hemispheres?

the two halves of the brain

<p>the two halves of the brain</p>
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what are the cerebral hemispheres separated by?

longitudinal fissure

<p>longitudinal fissure</p>
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What do the cerebral hemispheres do?

Control voluntary movement, interpret sensory information and are responsible for learning and memory

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central sulcus

separates frontal and parietal lobes

<p>separates frontal and parietal lobes</p>
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corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

<p>the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them</p>
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what is the benefit of the corpus callosum?

the communication between the hemispheres allows for faster processing and thinking

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Thalamus

the brain's sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

<p>the brain&apos;s sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla</p>
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brain lateralization

The organization of the brain into right and left hemispheres, with each hemisphere performing unique and specialized functions

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why is brain lateralization important?

it allows for parallel processing and the redundant systems allow for processing to occur if one hemisphere is damaged

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14

motor system (efferent)

Carries messages from the central nervous system to muscles and glands

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cerebral dominance

refers to hemisphere that is dominant for language (usually left hemisphere)

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Anterior

front

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Posterior

back

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superior/dorsal

top

<p>top</p>
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19

inferior/ventral

bottom

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20

anterior dominant cortex controls...

expressive language (including writing)

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posterior dominant cortex controls...

expressive language (including reading)

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22

left hemisphere of brain

controls right side of the body and is logical, contains mathamatics, lauguage, & speech

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right hemisphere of brain

plays significant role in prosodic aspects of language

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expressive prosody is controlled by...

the non dominant anterior cortex

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receptive prosody is controlled by...

the non dominant posterior cortex

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26

language deficits

most commonly produced by focal lesions, but more diffuse lesions can product subtle language deficits in high level language skills such as organization

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Broca's area

Anterior structure responsible for ability to speak or write (motor patterns)

<p>Anterior structure responsible for ability to speak or write (motor patterns)</p>
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Wernicke's area

Posterior structure responsible for auditory images/ Information

<p>Posterior structure responsible for auditory images/ Information</p>
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Arcuate Fasciculus

fibre track connecting Wernicke's and Broca's areas

<p>fibre track connecting Wernicke&apos;s and Broca&apos;s areas</p>
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Broca's aphasia

o Halting speech and writing o Stroke damage in Broca's area o Non-fluid Agrammatic speech o Communication of language not great

<p>o Halting speech and writing o Stroke damage in Broca&apos;s area o Non-fluid Agrammatic speech o Communication of language not great</p>
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Wernicke's aphasia

o Fluent Aphasia o Echolalia - repetition of words over and over again (severe cases repeat same word) o No complete answers or understanding o Understanding of language is not great

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progressive non-fluent aphasia (primary progressive aphasia)

  • degenerative disease that looks like Broca's (expressive deficits)

  • early to mid 50's onset

  • caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration or frontotemporal dementia

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expressive deficits

-Reduced vocabulary -Omission/addition of words -Stereotypic speech -Delayed or reduced output of speech -Hyperfluent speech -Word substitutions

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Expressive aphasia (Broca's)

  • left posterior frontal (Broca's area)

  • impaired speech

  • impaired writing

  • impaired repetition

  • grossly intact comprehension

  • grossly intact reading

<ul><li><p>left posterior frontal (Broca&apos;s area)</p></li><li><p>impaired speech</p></li><li><p>impaired writing</p></li><li><p>impaired repetition</p></li><li><p>grossly intact comprehension</p></li><li><p>grossly intact reading</p></li></ul>
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receptive aphasia (Wernicke's aphasia)

  • left posterior temporal/parietal (wernicke's area)

  • fluent, nonsensical speech

  • Impaired comprehension

  • impaired reading

  • grossly intact writing

  • mildly impaired repetition

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Semantic Dementia (SD)

Fluent speech, anomia, impaired comprehension, empty speech, semantic memory network broken, looks like Wernicke's aphasia

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Global aphasia

  • left anterior and posterior

  • impaired speech

  • impaired comprehension

  • impaired reading

  • impaired writing

  • impaired repetition

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Mixed Transcortical Aphasia

  • left anterior and posterior, sparing broca's and wernicke's areas

  • impaired speech

  • impaired comprehension

  • impaired reading

  • impaired writing

  • intact repetition

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Transcortical Motor Aphasia

  • left anterior frontal, mildly affected Broca's area

  • impaired speech

  • typically intact comprehension

  • typically intact reading

  • impaired writing

  • typically intact repetition

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Transcortical Sensory Aphasia

  • posterior parietal/temporal cortical lesion with sparring of wernicke's area

  • impaired speech

  • impaired comprehension

  • impaired reading

  • typically intact writing

  • typically intact repetition

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Conduction aphasia

  • lesion of the acute fasciculus which connects broca's and wernicke's area

  • grossly intact speech

  • intact comprehension

  • intact reading comprehension, oral reading poor due to paraphasias

  • grossly intact writing

  • severely impaired repetition

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Wernicke-Lichtheim Model: Conduction Aphasia

  • arcuate fasciculus impacted, nothing else

  • unable to repeat

<ul><li><p>arcuate fasciculus impacted, nothing else</p></li><li><p>unable to repeat</p></li></ul>
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Wernicke-Lichtheim Model: Wernicke's Aphasia

  • Auditory images region impacted

<ul><li><p>Auditory images region impacted</p></li></ul>
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Wernicke-Lichtheim Model: Transcortical Sensory Aphasia

  • damage between Wernicke's and Concept area

  • able to repeat because arcuate fasciculus is intact

<ul><li><p>damage between Wernicke&apos;s and Concept area</p></li><li><p>able to repeat because arcuate fasciculus is intact</p></li></ul>
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Wernicke-Lichtheim Model: Transcortical Motor Aphasia

  • damage between concept area and Broca's

  • able to repeat, can't produce speech

<ul><li><p>damage between concept area and Broca&apos;s</p></li><li><p>able to repeat, can&apos;t produce speech</p></li></ul>
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Wernicke-Lichtheim Model: Broca's Aphasia

  • damage to speech region

<ul><li><p>damage to speech region</p></li></ul>
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What anatomical areas are close to Wernicke's area?

Wernicke's area located in temporal lobe, close to supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, primary auditory area

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What anatomical areas are close to Broca's area?

Broca's area located in frontal lobe, close to primary motor strip

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What is the purpose of redundant, communicating arteries in brain?

To try and avoid catastrophic damage to the tissues

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medulla and pons functions

associated with basic life functions

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Cerebellum functions

associated with balance, postuire, motor coordination, implicit learning

<p>associated with balance, postuire, motor coordination, implicit learning</p>
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52

The frontal lobes are associated with

motor functions, expressive language, "executive" functions (e.g., behavioral planning, monitoring/regulation, inhibition, motivation, judge,ent), and mood/affect (emotional regulation) Also includes olfactory cortex.

<p>motor functions, expressive language, &quot;executive&quot; functions (e.g., behavioral planning, monitoring/regulation, inhibition, motivation, judge,ent), and mood/affect (emotional regulation) Also includes olfactory cortex.</p>
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parietal lobe function

is associated with somatsensory functions, spatial awareness/attention and complex visuoperceptual processing (reading and shape orientation/direction)

<p>is associated with somatsensory functions, spatial awareness/attention and complex visuoperceptual processing (reading and shape orientation/direction)</p>
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54

The temporal lobe is associated with:

receptive language, primary auditory cortex, declarative memory, visuoperceptual processing (form/shape integration), mood/affect, and olfactory cortex.

<p>receptive language, primary auditory cortex, declarative memory, visuoperceptual processing (form/shape integration), mood/affect, and olfactory cortex.</p>
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Occipital lobe associated with

o primary and secondary visual processing.

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Sylvian fissure (Lateral fissure)

Separates the temporal from the frontal lobe, and the temporal from the parietal lobe

<p>Separates the temporal from the frontal lobe, and the temporal from the parietal lobe</p>
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Sulcus

indentations in brain

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fissure

large sulcus (indentation)

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gyrus (gyri)

rounded elevation on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres

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superior temporal gyrus

the large gyrus of the temporal lobe adjacent to the lateral fissure; the location of auditory cortex

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61

anterior cerebral artery

The arteries that supply oxygen to most medial portions of frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes; strokes here can affect leg use

<p>The arteries that supply oxygen to most medial portions of frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes; strokes here can affect leg use</p>
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anterior communicating artery

connects right and left anterior cerebral arteries

<p>connects right and left anterior cerebral arteries</p>
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posterior cerebral artery

supplies occipital lobe

<p>supplies occipital lobe</p>
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64

middle cerebral artery stem

  • largest branch of internal carotid artery,

  • supplies blood to entire lateral cortex.

  • involved in language because it provides blood to subcortical structures of temporal and frontal lobes

<ul><li><p>largest branch of internal carotid artery,</p></li><li><p>supplies blood to entire lateral cortex.</p></li><li><p>involved in language because it provides blood to subcortical structures of temporal and frontal lobes</p></li></ul>
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lenticulostriate arteries

small, deep penetrating arteries that branch from the middle cerebral artery, very thin and vulnerable to strokes

<p>small, deep penetrating arteries that branch from the middle cerebral artery, very thin and vulnerable to strokes</p>
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language assessment

includes expressive skills, Receptive skills, repetition, prosody

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language assessment: expressive skills

  • fluency -articulation -organization -writing

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language assessment: receptive skills

  • naming

  • aural comprehension

  • reading

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language assessment: prosody

  • expressive prosody

  • receptive prosody

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What is the relay center of the brain?

the thalamus

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paraphasia

-phonemic -semantic

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right hemisphere contributions to language

  • Good auditory comprehension of language -If left hemisphere removed early, the right hemisphere can acquire language

  • If left hemisphere removed in adults, severe deficits in speech but still good auditory comprehension -Removal of the right hemisphere produces subtle changes in language comprehension

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Hemispherectomy

removal of a hemisphere

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Heschel's gyrus

  • primary auditory cortex, anterior to Wernicke's area in right hemisphere

  • important for words

<ul><li><p>primary auditory cortex, anterior to Wernicke&apos;s area in right hemisphere</p></li><li><p>important for words</p></li></ul>
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right hemisphere damage

  • unable to process non-verbal sounds

  • auditory agnosia and amusia

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pure word deafness

the ability to hear, to speak, and (usually) to read and write without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by damage to Wernicke's area or disruption of auditory input to this region

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what is the right hemisphere's main contribution in langauge?

prosody

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receptive aprosody

  • associated with lesion in right hemisphere temporoparietal area

  • patient unable to appreciate tone, inflection and expression of another even in repetition

  • patient can express inflection, tone, emotion

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expressive aprosody

  • associated with lesion in right hemisphere frontal region, next to left hemisphere's Broca's area

  • patient can't express inflection and tonal quality of emotion

  • patient can appreciate another's inflection and tone

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80

memory

  • encode, retain, retrieve

  • verbal (lateralized function), non verbal

  • hierarchical function - requires the basics such as attention and other cognitive components to be intact

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sensory registration

  • auditory, visual, gustatory, tactile, or olfactory information enters -consciously registered, brain deems importance of information very quickly

  • lasts ms to s

  • attention required for next step

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short-term memory

  • working memory, but more of an attention system

  • normal person able to remember 7±2 items in STM

  • brief system

  • chunking of information can help

  • organizing or rehearsal required for next step

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long-term memory

  • includes everything that can be recalled within few minutes

  • relatively permanent

  • can be accessed

  • consolidation process used in LTM

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LTM (long term memory) factors

  • rehearsal

  • emotional salience: things are easier to remember when there is emotion attached

  • Levels of encoding: o Elaboration: building new information on top of what is known o State dependent learning: able to recall better when in same internal state as when information was learned o Environmental dependent learning: internal and external cues help with recollection of information

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Papez circuit

  • a circuit of structures interconnecting hippocampus, mamillary bodies, thalamus and cingulate gyrus.

  • involved in forming new autobiographical memories and declarative memories

<ul><li><p>a circuit of structures interconnecting hippocampus, mamillary bodies, thalamus and cingulate gyrus.</p></li><li><p>involved in forming new autobiographical memories and declarative memories</p></li></ul>
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stages of memory

  1. sensory storage

  • no attention = forgetting

  • attention = STM

  1. STM

  • processing = LTM

  • no processing = forgetting

  1. LTM

  • encoding from STM

<ol><li><p>sensory storage</p></li></ol><ul><li><p>no attention = forgetting</p></li><li><p>attention = STM</p></li></ul><ol start="2"><li><p>STM</p></li></ol><ul><li><p>processing = LTM</p></li><li><p>no processing = forgetting</p></li></ul><ol start="3"><li><p>LTM</p></li></ol><ul><li><p>encoding from STM</p></li></ul>
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explicit memory (declarative memory)

  • can declare it

  • contains episodic memory and semantic memory

  • Verbal-visual

  • Intentional- incidental

  • Recent - remote

  • Frequently disrupted due to many etiologies of disease

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episodic memory (part of explicit memory)

  • truly autobiographical or autobiographically bound o - where you learned it, when you learned it o - retrieval of the learning event

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semantic memory (part of explicit memory)

  • facts

  • language concept area

  • not time dependant

  • Retrieval of a fact

  • No idea where or when you learned it - it is a fact

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implicit memory

  • Skills and procedures

  • Origins of learning often lost

  • Often preserved in disease due to more distributed nature of this neuroanatomically

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Why are there more clinical problems associated with declarative memory than non-declarative memory?

Declarative memory involves the medial temporal lobes which are neuroanatomically vulnerable. Non-declarative memory is diffused across many subcortical structures meaning it is harder to damage

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anterograde amnesia (AA)

  • damaged episodic memory due to damage in hippocampus or other regions of papez circuit

  • inability to form new memories

  • Cannot learn new information

  • Most common memory impairment

  • patient HM: had bilateral resection of hippocampus

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retrograde amnesia (RA)

  • loss of memory for events prior to injury

  • temporally graded: tend to remember less closer to injury, and more further from memory

  • rarely spans years

  • very rare to have RA without AA

  • can have AA without RA

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encoding

the process of getting information into the memory system,

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Consolidation

taking encoded information and storing it more permanently, associated with neuroanatomical change in brain making new circuit

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retrieval

accessing stored memory, do better with cues than free recall

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primacy effect

tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well

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recency effect

tendency to remember words at the end of a list especially well

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99

memory assessment focuses on...

  • immediate: asking for information right away

  • learning: repeat and test information to see progress

  • delayed: distract to prevent rehearsal and see consolidation

  • cued: help to assess retrieval

  • recognition: help to asses retrieval

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100

memory impairments caused by....

  • Orbitofrontal and medial frontal structures

  • Diencephalic lesions

  • Severe mesial temporal lobe damage

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