APHG Unit 3 (Culture)- CED Aligned

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Acculturation

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98 Terms

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Acculturation

adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another (still retain original culture)

<p>adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another (still retain original culture)</p>
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Assimilation

the process of a person or group losing all of the cultural traits that made them distinct from the people around them

<p>the process of a person or group losing all of the cultural traits that made them distinct from the people around them</p>
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Religous Branch

a major division within a religion

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4

Creole or creolized language

a language that began as a combination of two other languages and is spoken as the primary language of a group of people (a pidgin that has native speakers)

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Cultural convergence

when two cultures become more similar because of frequent interactions

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Cultural divergence

when a culture splits into different cultures because of lack of interaction

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Cultural relativism

the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged through the eyes of another culture (try to understand)

<p>the idea that a person&apos;s beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person&apos;s own culture, rather than be judged through the eyes of another culture (try to understand)</p>
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Custom

something that a group of people does repeatedly that becomes part of their culture (for example, bowing instead of shaking hands in Japan)

<p>something that a group of people does repeatedly that becomes part of their culture (for example, bowing instead of shaking hands in Japan)</p>
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Dialect

different forms of the same language used by groups that have some different vocabulary and pronunciations

<p>different forms of the same language used by groups that have some different vocabulary and pronunciations</p>
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10

Ethnic (folk) culture

the cultural traditions that are generally held by a specific ethnic group, often localized in a specific area

<p>the cultural traditions that are generally held by a specific ethnic group, often localized in a specific area</p>
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Ethnocentrism

judging people or traditions based on your own cultural standards

<p>judging people or traditions based on your own cultural standards</p>
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12

Indigenous people/ communities

the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled the area more recently

<p>the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled the area more recently</p>
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Language extinction

a language that is no longer spoken by anyone as their native language

<p>a language that is no longer spoken by anyone as their native language</p>
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14

Multiculturalism

when various ethnic groups coexist with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities

<p>when various ethnic groups coexist with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities</p>
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15

Secularism

a philosophy that interprets life on principles taken solely from the material world, without recourse to religion.

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Sequent occupance

the idea that the current cultural landscape is a combination of all the societies who lived there previously and the changes each group made

<p>the idea that the current cultural landscape is a combination of all the societies who lived there previously and the changes each group made</p>
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Sociofacts

the institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, including family structure and political, educational and religious institutions. "What a culture does"

<p>the institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, including family structure and political, educational and religious institutions. &quot;What a culture does&quot;</p>
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Syncretism

the blending traits from two different cultures to form a new trait

<p>the blending traits from two different cultures to form a new trait</p>
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taboo

something that is forbidden by a culture or a religion, sometimes so forbidden that it is often not even discussed

<p>something that is forbidden by a culture or a religion, sometimes so forbidden that it is often not even discussed</p>
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Universalizing religion

a religion that attempts to appeal to all people and has a worldwide focus as opposed to a regional focus (Christianity, Islam, etc.)

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Culture

The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.

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Cultural Identity

Ones belief in belonging to a group or certain cultural aspect

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local/folk culture

cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, customs, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.

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Popular culture

(mass culture) cultural traits such as dress, diet and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies.

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Race

the social construct that categorizes humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics; no scientific backing

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Ethnicity

DNA and homeland affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture

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Buddhism

The third of the world's major universalizing religions. It has 365 million adherents especially in China and Southeast Asia. It is important because a large percent of the earth's population follow Buddhism beliefs. Prince Siddartha (Buddha) had a vision while sitting under the Bodhi (awakening) tree, then founded it in the 6th c. BCE (in eastern India) against the caste system; branched off from Hinduism. They believe all life is dukkha (nothing permanent); seek to achieve nirvana (enlightenment); believe in no named deity, but do believe in god; cultural landscape contains statues of him, pagodas & shrines (often bell-shaped to protect burial mounds).

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Christianity

a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament of the Bible. It is the most popular religion in the world (>1.3 billion); three denominations (branches) - orthodox (oldest), catholic (largest with the richest bureaucracy of all religions), protestant (newest); Protestant Reformation weakened the Vatican's control of Europe and gave rise to secularism in the West; landscape contains churches and cathedrals; use the most land for their dead (cemeteries).

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Confucianism

Developed by earlier Chinese man Confucius, it's a complex system of moral, social, political, and religious thought. This is important to HG because it has affected Chinese Civilizations tremendously.

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Ethnic Religion

A religion with a rather concentrated distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location and ethnicity. Important because most religions start off as a Ethnic Religion.

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Hajj

The pilgrimage to Mecca for Islam followers. It's the fifth of the five pillars.

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Hinduism

Created in India, approximately one billion followers. Unlike other religions, heaven isn't always the ultimate goal in life. Third largest in world behind Christianity and Islam. Religion is inseparable from life; god (Brahman, universal soul) may be in many forms (polytheistic); karma (what goes around comes around; transferability of the soul) and reincarnation are cornerstones; caste system locks people into class levels; cultural landscape has many temples and shrines (bestow merit on the builder, should be in a comfortable place for the gods (often by water)).

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Islam

(means the submission to the will of god (Allah)). Monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad in Qu'ran. It is the second largest religion in the world (fastest growing due to birth rates), and has impacted the world greatly, especially boundaries (e.g., North Africa, "Middle East"). Half of the Muslims live in four countries outside the Middle East: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. The two major branches are Sunni and Shiah (Shiites believe in the infallibility of imams; are concentrated mostly in Iran and eastern Iraq); Five Pillars of Islam - 1) shahada (creed), 2) frequent prayer (toward Mecca), 3) Ramadan, alms giving, 5) hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca); Sharia law is the system of Islamic law (based on interpretation of the Qu'ran); hijab refers to the need for women to cover themselves (burkas cover women entirely except for the eyes); landscape contains mosques and minarets (for calling out prayers).

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Judaism

It is the religion of ancient Hebrews, said to be one of the first monotheistic faiths- with it's roots in the teachings of Abraham, who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god. According to Jewish teaching, Abraham and God have a covenant in which the followers agree to worship only one God, and God agrees to protect them, his chosen people.

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Proselytic Religion

Referred to as a Universalizing Religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion.

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Shintoism

said to be the way of god. It is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion, combining elements of Buddhism and local religions (a syncretic religion). It involves the worship of kami (a god). It was very popular prior to WWII, but has lost much of its dominance and importance in Japanese culture.

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Sikhism

is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India . The principal belief in Sikhism is faith in Vāhigurū. Emphasizes faith in one god. Only religion to state that men and women are equal.

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Language

a set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols used for communication.

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Language hearth

the original locations of the major language families

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Language family

group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin (e.g., Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan,...)

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Language group

set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics (e.g., Germanic, Romance, Slavic, ...)

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Language branch

group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)

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Language divergence

when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of a language, and continued isolation causes new languages to be formed.

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Language convergence

merging of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages.

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45

Lingua franca

a common language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce; Swahili in Africa, Arabic in Middle East, etc. Lingua franca around the world is English

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46

Pidgin

when parts of two or more languages are combined in simplified structure and vocabulary (ex. Spanish)

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Creole (and creolization)

a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue of a region and/or people.

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Logogram or Ideogram

a written symbol that represents an idea or object directly rather than a particular word or speech sound, as a Chinese character

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Isolated language

A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.

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Official Language

The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.

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Extinct Language

language without any native speakers

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52

Religion

the faithfulness to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual nature.

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Fundamentalism

literal interpretation and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (usually religious; many can take these beliefs to an extreme and even violent level.

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Monotheistic religion

Belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe

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Polytheistic religions

Belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe

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Reincarnation

is that after this life you will come back in another life either as a plant, animal, or a human life. So basically what you do in this life will affect what your next life is like. This is commonly practiced by the Buddhists and the Hindus.

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Religious architectural styles

These are the styles of architecture created by the religions. For example, Christians have always made temples, and Buddhists have always made a lot of religious statues.

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Religious Culture Hearth

where most religions are born. Most major religions have come from the Middle East near Israel, but a few from India too.

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Sacred space

place or space people infuse with religious meaning; Ex) Jerusalem - Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre), Judaism (Western Wall), and Islam (Dome of the Rock); Catholicism - The Vatican; Islam - Mecca, Medina; Hinduism - Varanasi & The Ganges River

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Sharia law

It is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles.

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Syncretic religion

separate religions that combine into a new religion; often borrow from the pat and the present.

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Mormonism

a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is practiced around the world, but is concentrated in Utah

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Daoism/Taoism

-religion founded by Lao-Tsu focused on proper political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature-

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Sunni

adherents of the largest branch of Islam, called orthodox or traditionalist

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Shi'ite (Shia)

adherents of one of the two main divisions of Islam. They represent the Persian (Iranian) variation of Islam. They believe in the INFALLIBILITY and divine right to authority of the IMAMS.

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Eastern Orthodox

One of three major branches of Christianity that, together with the Roman Catholic Church, arose out of the division of the Roman empire

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Protestant

One of three major branches of Christianity. Following widespread societal changes in Europe starting in the 1300s CE, many adherents to the Roman Catholic Church began to question the role of religion in their lives and opened the door to the Reformation wherein John Huss, Martin Luther, John Calvin and others CHALLENGED MANY OF THE FUNDAMENTAL TEACHINGS OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH

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Roman Catholic

one of the three major branches of Christianity that, together with the Eastern Orthodox Church, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire

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Theocracy

A government controlled by religious leaders

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Cosmogony

A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.

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Agnostic

one who believes that the existence of a god can be neither proven nor disproven

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Atheist

a person who believes there is no god

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Animism

The belief that bodies of water, animals, trees, and other natural objects have spirits

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Denomination

A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.

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Material Culture

The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.

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Nonmaterial Culture

The beliefs, practices, aesthics, and values of a group of people

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Traditional or Folk Architecture

architecture that comes from the collective memory of groups of traditional people. These buildings are based not on blueprints but on mental images that change little form one generation to the next and use locally available raw materials

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Cultural Diffusion

The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.

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Culture Trait

A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.

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Culture Realms

A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems; a major world area having sufficient distinctiveness to be perceived as set apart from other realms in terms of cultural characteristics and complexes.

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Cultural Hearth

The geographic origins or sources of innovations, ideas, or ideologies. Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture

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Cultural Landscape

The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.

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Habit

A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.

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Built Environment

the part of the physical landscape that represent material culture; the buildings, roads, bridges, and similar structures large and small of the cultural landscape

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Cultural Ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

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Mentifact

Nonmaterial parts of a culture such as language, religion, artistic pursuits, folk stories, myths, etc.

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artifact

an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest.

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Modernist Architecture

Modern architecture stresses simplicity. Buildings can either have an organic sculptural quality or a rigid geometry as seen in the "glass box" skyscraper of the International Style.

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Postmodern Architecture

A reaction in architectural design to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture. Postmodernism uses older, historical styles and a sense of lightheartedness and eclecticism. Buildings combine pleasant-looking forms and playful colors to convey new ideas and to create spaces that are more people-friendly than their modernist predecessors.

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Diaspora

A dispersion of people from their homeland

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sense of place

The feeling that an area has a distinct and meaningful character

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Placemaking

The deliberate shaping of an environment to facilitate social interaction and improve a community's quality of life.

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relocation diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.

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Expansion Diffusion

the spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process

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Contagious Diffusion

The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.

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Hierarchical Diffusion

The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places

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Stimulus Diffusion

The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.

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Time-space convergence

through processes such as globalization time is accelerated and the significance of space is reduced

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