Human Osteology Midterm

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Bones of the axial skeleton

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Bones of the axial skeleton

-skull -auditory ossicles -hyoid bone -vertebral column -thoracic cage

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bones of the appendicular skeleton

-scapula -clavicle -pelvic girdle -humerus, radius, ulna, hand bones -femur, fibula, tibia, foot bones

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Bone is an

organ

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Physis

space between the metaphysis and epiphysis -only in living individuals, seen in X-Rays

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Metaphysis

where diaphysis and epiphysis meet

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Collagen in bone

type 2

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Osteoblasts

build bone by secreting osteoid

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osteoid

unmineralized bone matrix

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Osteoclasts

clear away/break bone -repair via remodelling

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Osteocytes

mature bone cells -osteoblasts trapped in bone matrix

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Lacunae

pores that contain osteocytes

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Function of osteocytes

bone maintenance and communication -respond to need for more/less minerals -alert BMU to damaged bone

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Layers of bone

periosteum and endosteum

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Periosteum

fibrous membrane covering a bone

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Endosteum

lining of the medullary cavity

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Lamellar bone

mature bone

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lamellae

sheets of mature bone, 3-7 microns thick

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Haversian canal

central, longitudinal canals of bone that carry blood vessels and nerves to deliver nutrients and signals through bone matrix

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Osteon

basic unit of lamellar bone -Includes osteocyte, haversian canal, and circular sheets of lamellae

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Volkmann's Canals

transverse canals that connect Haversian canals, also carry blood vessels and nerves

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endochondral ossification

process in which bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage

  1. Bone collar formation

  2. Calcification of cartilage, cavitation begins

  3. spongy bone forms in center shaft

  4. Medullary cavity forms, SOCs appear, ossification continues

  5. Ossification of epiphyses, hyaline cartilage only remains in epiphyseal plate and articular cartilage

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intramembranous ossification

bone develops from a fibrous membrane

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form ossification center

  2. Osteoid secreted and calcifies which traps osteoblasts to become osteocytes

  3. Osteoid laid in random pattern, forms woven bone. Mesenchyme condenses on outer layer of woven bone and becomes periosteum

  4. Lamellar bone replaces woven bone forming compact bone sheets and red marrow appears

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Types of bones

compact (dense/cortical) and spongy (trabecular/cancellous)

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functions of skeleton

Hematopoiesis, mineral/fat storage, support, protection, movement

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stored in medullary cavity, mostly fat

yellow marrow

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stored within cancellous tissue

red marrow

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minerals in bone

mostly calcium and phosphate

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Trabecular bone makes up

flat bones, articular ends of long bones

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Compact bone makes up

external surfaces of bone, shaft of long bone

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Bones longer than they are wide

long bone

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generally cube shaped bones, or bones that form within tendons

short bones

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thin, flattened and slightly curved bones

flat bones

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bones with complicated shapes

irregular bones

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Long bones make up the

appendicular skeleton

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short bone examples

carpals, tarsals, and patella

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flat bone examples

skull, ribs, sternum, and pelvis

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irregular bone examples

vertebrae, mandible and parts of the splanchnocranium

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Primary ossification of the humerus

diaphysis

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Secondary ossification centers of the humerus

head, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, medial epicondyle, trochlea, capitulum, lateral epicondyle

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SOC's of humerus fusion age

14-16 years

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Humerus muscle attachment site

deltoid tuberosity

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Deltoid tuberosity

deltoid

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radius muscle attachment sites

radial tuberosity, pronator teres

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radial tuberosity

biceps brachaii

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pronator teres

pronator teres

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ulna muscle attachment sites

olecranon process, pronator quadratus ridge

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olecranon process

triceps

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pronator quadratus ridge

pronator quadratus

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POCs of radius and ulna

diaphysis

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SOCs of radius and ulna

proximal and distal epiphyses

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Skull

entire head

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Mandible

lower jaw alone

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Cranium

skull without mandible

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Calotte

skull cap (hat brim)

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Splanchnocranium

facial skeleton

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Neurocranium

braincase, everything the brain touches

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frontonasal suture

small, horizontal suture that separates the nasal bones from the frontal

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frontomaxillary suture

paired, small sutures that are found on the side of the frontal bone just lateral to the nasal bones and run diagonally to the maxilla

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sinuses of the skull

frontal sinus, sphenoid sinus, maxillary sinus

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sphenoid sinus

located in the body of the sphenoid

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maxillary sinus

triangular in shape, located in the middle of the maxilla visible when cut in half

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nasion

<p>middle point where nasals connect with the frontal bone, 2</p>

middle point where nasals connect with the frontal bone, 2

<p>middle point where nasals connect with the frontal bone, 2</p>
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glabella

<p>located just above the nasion on the metopic suture where the superciliary arch meets the rest of the frontal bone, below 17</p>

located just above the nasion on the metopic suture where the superciliary arch meets the rest of the frontal bone, below 17

<p>located just above the nasion on the metopic suture where the superciliary arch meets the rest of the frontal bone, below 17</p>
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bregma

<p>20, intersection of coronal and sagittal sutures</p>

20, intersection of coronal and sagittal sutures

<p>20, intersection of coronal and sagittal sutures</p>
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dacryon

<p>located at the junction of the lacrimal and the frontal, 3</p>

located at the junction of the lacrimal and the frontal, 3

<p>located at the junction of the lacrimal and the frontal, 3</p>
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prosthion

<p>On the midline of the alveolar process of the maxilla, below 1</p>

On the midline of the alveolar process of the maxilla, below 1

<p>On the midline of the alveolar process of the maxilla, below 1</p>
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Alare

<p>located on most lateral point of the nasal aperture, 15</p>

located on most lateral point of the nasal aperture, 15

<p>located on most lateral point of the nasal aperture, 15</p>
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ectoconchion

<p>most lateral point on the orbital margin, between 5 and 9</p>

most lateral point on the orbital margin, between 5 and 9

<p>most lateral point on the orbital margin, between 5 and 9</p>
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euryon

<p>greatest cranial width, along temporal line between 26 and 27</p>

greatest cranial width, along temporal line between 26 and 27

<p>greatest cranial width, along temporal line between 26 and 27</p>
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opisthocranium

<p>point at the rear of the skull furthest from the glabella, 30</p>

point at the rear of the skull furthest from the glabella, 30

<p>point at the rear of the skull furthest from the glabella, 30</p>
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opisthion

midline posterior margin of foramen magnum

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basion

midline anterior margin of foramen magnum

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lambda

<p>intersection of the sagittal and lambdoidal suture, 25</p>

intersection of the sagittal and lambdoidal suture, 25

<p>intersection of the sagittal and lambdoidal suture, 25</p>
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frontal ossification

intramembranous, frontal boss POC, develops in 2 halves

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frontal articulations

parietals, zygomatics, nasals, maxilla, ethmoid, sphenoid, lacrimals

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parietal ossification

intramembranous, parietal boss

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parietal articulations

frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid

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occipital ossification

intramembranous: squama endochondral: basilar and lateral portions

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occipital articulations

temporals, parietals, sphenoid

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temporal ossification

intramembranous: squama endochondral: petrous portion, zygomatic process, mastoid process

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temporal articulations

parietals, occipital, sphenoid, zygomatic, mandible

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nasal ossification

intramembranous, nasal halves

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nasal articulations

frontal, maxilla, ethmoid, nasal

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sphenoid ossification

endochondral: body, lesser wings, greater wings

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