CLAS 1020 - Test 2 Review

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Katabasis

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Katabasis

A journey to the underworld; "going down"

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Apotheosis

The elevation to divine status; "deification"

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Apollodorus

Wrote "The Library," a summary of myths from Creation to the Trojan War.

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Perseus

the son of Zeus who slew Medusa (with the help of Athena and Hermes) and rescued Andromeda from a sea monster.

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Acrisius

King of Argos and father of Danae, the mother of Perseus. Acrisius locks away Danae to try to deflect a prophecy that he would be killed by his grandson, but Zeus came in the form of a shower of gold and impregnated Danae. He would eventually be unwittingly killed by Perseus.

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Danae

King Acrisius' daughter, who gets pregnant by Zeus in the form of a shower of gold while in a prison-type underground room where she was put by her father because of a prophecy that said her son would kill her father. She gave birth to Perseus, and they were both put into a chest and sailed out to sea.

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Polydectes

Arrogant king who desires the head of Medusa; evil king who wants to marry Danae; The ruler of the island where Danae and Perseus land. Cruel and ruthless, he wanted to marry Danae but wanted Perseus dead, so he blackmailed Perseus into a mission to bring back the head of Medusa as a wedding present.

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Kibisis

A "bag" or "wallet" used by Perseus to hold Medusa's severed head.

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3 Graiai

Means "gray women"; the 3 sisters who shared one eye and one tooth. In order to get information about Medusa's whereabouts, Perseus took their eye and tooth and wouldn't give them back until they told him what he needed to know.

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3 Gorgons

Stheno, Euryale, Medusa. They lived in a cave to the west (possibly an entrance to the Underworld because of the west's association with the setting sun -- katabasis).

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Medusa

The mortal gorgon. Her hair was made of snakes, and looking directly at her would turn a person to stone.

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Pegasus

Sprang from the blood of Medusa when Perseus killed her. Offspring of Medusa and Poseidon. Brought Zeus his thunderbolts.

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Andromeda

Daughter of Cepheus and Cassiepeia, King and Queen of Libya. Cassiepeia committed hubris by saying she was prettier than the sea nymphs and Poseidon got mad and send a flood and sea monster to their town. Consulted the oracle of Zeus Ammon and it said to chain Andromeda to a rock and sacrifice her to the monster to end turmoil. Perseus saved Andromeda and killed the monster.

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Cassiopeia

The mother of Andromeda who angered the gods by saying she was more beautiful than the sea nymphs. (hubris)

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Phineus

Engaged to Andromeda before she married Perseus. Led a mob into Andromeda and Perseus' wedding. Perseus lithified him with Medusa's head.

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Cepheus

King of Ethiopia, husband to Cassiopeia, father of Andromeda.

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Cetus

The sea monster sent to kill Andromeda by Poseidon

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Atlas

Forced to hold the sky on his shoulders as punishment for leading the Titans in the war against the Olympians. In northwest Africa near the Strait of Gibraltar and the Garden of the Hesperides, an orchard with golden apples.

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Atlantis

A wealthy and powerful island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean ruled by Atlas. The people of Atlantis eventually became tyrannical, and the city of Athens rebelled and won a victory. The gods punished Atlantis with a huge earthquake and flood that caused the island to sink below the ocean.

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Atlas Mountains

Formed when Medusa's severed head lithified the Titan Atlas.

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Hesperides

3 daughters of Atlas; the Gorgons' cave was near the Garden of the Hesperides

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Bellerophon and Chimaera

As punishment for a false accusation, Bellerophon was sent to fight the Chimaera. He rode Pegasus to slay the Chimaera. Out of hubris, he tried to ride Pegasus up to Mount Olympus, but Pegasus refused and threw off Bellerophon.

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Hercules (=Alcides)

did the 12 labors; has a fierce temper

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Hera

nemesis (archenemy of Hercules; puts snakes in his cradle

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The Milky Way

comes from Hera's milk spray

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Alcmena

The mother of Hercules. Seduced by Zeus, who took the form of Amphitryon while he was away.

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Amphitryon

Husband of Alcmena and step-father of Hercules; Zeus slows down the night and disguises himself as this man in order to mate with Alcmena.

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Iphicles

Hercules' half maternal twin brother.

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Eileithyia (Ilithyia)

daughter of Hera who delays Hercules' birth

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Linus

Heracles' music teacher, who he killed.

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Megara & 3 sons

Was Hercules' wife. Killed by Hercules when Hera sent him into a fit of rage. He had to complete 12 tasks as penance.

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Eurystheus

The king of Mycenae and Hercules' cousin for whom Heracles' served for 12 years and completed the 12 (originally 10) labors for in order to repent for the killing of Megara and his kids.

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Iolaus

Hercules' nephew who helped him kill the Hydra

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Hercules' tasks

  1. Lion of Nemea --> offspring of Echidna and Typhaon; has club; strangles it and takes its' impenetrable hide

  2. Hydra of Lerna (disqualified because he had help from his nephew Iolaus) --> offspring of Echidna and Typhaon; two heads replaced chopped off head so Hercules burns them; Hera sent crab to distract him; buried immortal head under rock

  3. Cerynean Hind --> female deer sacred to Artemis; can only capture but accidentally breaks off horn

  4. Erymanthian Boar --> captures and brings it back (Parergon --> Centaurs, Lapiths and Centaurs (Theseus), Prometheus suggests to transfer Chiron's immortality to Hercules)

  5. Stable of Augeas (disqualified because Hercules asks for payment) --> diverts Alpheus and Peneus rivers; Arethusa on Sicily (chased by river god Alpheus, rescued by Artemis); Olympic Games (Hercules wages war on Augeas for not paying him --> establishes Olympic Games to commemorate victory)

  6. Stymphalian Birds --> man eating birds; Hercules given noisemaker by Athena to startle them and kill them in the air

  7. Cretan Bull --> bull sent by Poseidon; Hercules captured it

  8. Mares of Diomedes --> tames the mares by feeding the flesh of their master (Diomedes); Parergon (Death and Hercules fight for Alcestis)

  9. Girdle of Hippolyta --> queen of the Amazons; battle --> Hercules took belt; Parergon (King Laomedon of Troy --> Poseidon and Apollo help him build walls of Troy; defaulted; they send plague and sea-monster to eat his daughter Hesione; Hercules saves her but Laomedon doesn't give him his horses; Hercules return and sacks Troy)

  10. Cattle of Geryon --> triple-bodied son of Chrysaor; Eurytion (cowherd); Pillars of Hercules (steles); rides in golden cup of Helios; Hercules kills Orthus (two-headed dog) and Geryon; Parergon (King Evander, Cacus --> tried to steal his cattle; defeats him with club)

  11. Hesperides' apples --> were 3 daughters of Atlas; Ladon (snake, serpent) guards apples; relieves Atlas of his burden so he can go get the apples; Parergon (Nereus --> metamorph who Hercules wrestles for information; Antaeus --> son of Gaia, killed by Hercules; Busiris --> sacrificed King because that's what he did to foreigners)

  12. Cerberus --> led by Hermes --> katabasis (following initiation in Elusenian Mysteries, Demeter); fights Cerberus in the Underworld (lion hide); Hades let him take Cerberus; rescues Theseus but not Pirithous

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Parerga

"side works"; Hercules' minor works he completed in addition to the 12 labors: -Centaurs --> Hercules accidentally shoots Chiron (immortal) with Hydra venom arrow (4) -Fighting for Alcestis aginst death (8) -Rescuing Hesione at Troy (9) -Defeating Cacus, monster son of Vulcan (10) -Wrestling Nereus (11?) -Killing Antaeus, giant son of Gaia (11?) -Killing Busiris, king of Egypt who sacrificed foreigners (11?) -Killing the eagle plaguing Prometheus (4?)

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Iphitus

A guest whom Hercules killed, violating xenia

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Tripod of Apollo

Hercules went to Delphi to be purified after killing Iphitus, but he was scorned by the Pythia, so he stole her sacred tripod and fought with Apollo. Zeus separated them with a thunderbolt, and Hercules had to go into slavery again for a year to atone.

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Omphale

The Queen of Lydia who bought Hercules from the slave market after he stole the tripod of Apollo. She forced him to wear women's clothing and do women's work (secretly in love with him).

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Cercopes

Mischievous dwarf twins who practiced scams and thefts; called Hercules "ole black bottom." Captured by Hercules and turned into monkeys by Jupiter.

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Deianira

Heracles' second wife, originally engaged to the river god Achelous. Hercules fought Achelous, who could change shape because he was a river god. Achelous took the form of a bull, and Hercules broke off one of his horns, which became the cornucopia.

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Achelous

The river god engaged to Deianira until Hercules married her. He fought with Hercules, changing shape. He shifted into a bull, and Hercules broke off one of his horns, which became the cornucopia.

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Cornucopia

"Horn of plenty"; a horn broken off from Achelous as a bull. Apollonius says this was the horn of Amalthea, which Achelous gave to Hercules in exchange for his own horn back.

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Nessus

A centaur and ferryman who carried Deianira across the river and tried to kidnap her until Hercules rescued her and shot him with an arrow dipped in the Hydra's venom. The centaur's shirt was covered with his blood, tainted with the Hydra's venom. He told Deianira that it would be an aphrodisiac, when it was actually poisonous.

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Love potion (on shirt)

Nessus told Deianira that his bloodstained shirt would be an aphrodisiac. Years later, Hercules took Iole as his concubine. When Deianira found out, she sent him the shirt of Nessus, thinking it would make him love her again. He put it on, and it started burning him. He threw himself on a funeral pyre and his mortal half burnt away, but his divine half was escorted to Olympus by Athena (apotheosis).

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Hebe

Hercules' third wife; daughter of Zeus and Hera and goddess of youth. Their marriage marked Hercules' reconciliation with Hera.

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Chthonic

"underground"

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Hades, Pluto (= Dis)

"Wealthy"

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Persephone (Kore)

kidnapped and raped by Hades

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Virgo

The constellation of Persephone

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Erebus

"darkness"

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Tartarus

for bad people

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Elysium

for good people

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Inferno

"below"

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Styx

oaths

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Acheron

boundary

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Cocytus

"Lament"

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Phlegethon

fire

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Lethe (river)

"oblivion"; drunk by souls on the point of reincarnation

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Minos

1/3 judges of Underworld; king of Crete

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Rhadamanthus

1/3 judges of Underworld; Minos' brother, famous as a lawgiver, tutor of Hercules

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Aeacus

1/3 judges of Underworld (not important)

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Cerberus

3-headed watchdog of the Underworld; fur covered with snakes (chthonic)

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Charon

ferryman who takes newly arrived souls across the river Acheron; demands payment

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Furies (Erinyes)

Alecto, Megaera, Tisiphone; 3 chthonic agents of punishment who carry snakes, whips, torches, and chains

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Thanatos

Greek god of death. Roman counterpart is Orcus.

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Hypnos (Somnus)

God of sleep

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Morpheus

God of dreams

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Tityos

Crime: tried to rape Leto, the mother of Apollo and Artemis. Killed by Apollo. Punishment: vulture eats his liver (assumed to be the seat of lust)

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Tantalus

Crimes: stole nectar and ambrosia while dining with the gods, revealed secrets of Zeus that he overheard while dining with him, killed and cooked his son Pelops and offered the human flesh to the gods to eat. Punishment: stand in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree with low branches, but whenever he reached for the fruit, it was just out of his grasp.

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Sisyphus

Crimes: violated xenia, quarreled with brother, revealed one of the secret seductions of Zeus. Punishment: forced to roll a stone over and over again up a steep hill.

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Ixion

Crime: lusted after Hera. Punishment: spins on a fiery wheel.

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Belidae/Danaids

Crime: murdered their new husbands. Punishment: carry water in leaky vessels, sieves

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Orpheus

The son of Calliope and the Thracian King known for his musical talents (lyre). Bought Eurydice's life back from the Underworld with music, but he looked back and lost her (broke taboo).

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Eurydice

On her wedding night while she is walking to Orpheus' house, she gets bitten by a serpent and dies (bad omen).

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Hymen (or Hymeneus)

Son of Aphrodite and Dionysus and god of the wedding feast, which involved wedding torches and saffron-colored clothing. During Orpheus' and Eurydice's wedding the torch sputtered --> bad omen.

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Orphism

A mystery cult focused on Orpheus, who had seen the Underworld and returned to tell about it (recorded in poems by Orpheus, now lost). Emphasized the cycle of life, death, purification in the Underworld, and rebirth (reincarnation).

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Myth of Er

Story by Plato that ends his Republic. A soldier named Er sees the afterlife and reincarnates. Introduced the idea that moral people are rewarded and immoral people punished after death.

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Metempsychosis

"change" + "soul" (reincarnation)

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Music of the Spheres

As the crystalline sphere rotate, each one produces a different musical pitch, resulting in a heavenly harmony. Moon is low pitch and stars are high pitch.

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Dream of Scipio

Written by Cicero and based directly on Plato. A fictional story of a man who dreams about the cosmos, which are set in 9 concentric crystalline spheres that each produce a musical pitch as they rotate.

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3 Fates (Moirai/Parcae)

Determine the length of each person's life by spinning a thread of a certain length. In The Dream of Scipio by Cicero, they set the crystal spheres of the cosmos spinning to produce a celestial harmony (Music of the Spheres).

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Aeneas

A mythical Greek warrior who was a leader on the Trojan side of the Trojan War. Virgil wrote an epic poem about his life called the Aeneid.

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Cumae

Oldest Greek colony in Italy, the site of an entrance to the Underworld and home to the Sibyl, a preistess of Apollo

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The Sibyl

The priestess of Apollo at Cumae, her sacred space is in a cave. Aeneas had been instructed to consult her and follow her into the Underworld to speak to his dead father Anchises (heroic katabasis). Told Aeneas he would first have to find the golden bough and find and bury the corpse of his comrade Misenus.

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Golden bough

A branch sacred to Persephone. Aeneas had to find this before the Sibyl would escort him into the Underworld.

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Anchises

Aeneas's father, and a symbol of Aeneas's Trojan heritage. Aeneas carried him from the burning Troy.

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Twin Gates of Sleep

There are two gates of sleep through which to exit: one made of horn, and the other of ivory. Horn: "an easy exit for true shades" Ivory: "exit for false dreams" Aeneas and the Sibyl choose the ivory gate for their return to earth.

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Alcestis (by Euripides)

Apollo killed the Cyclopes and was forced to serve as a slave to Admetus as punishment. Admetus and Alcestis were to be married, but he forgot to include a matrimonial sacrifice to Artemis. He was to die as punishment, but Apollo convinced the Fates to allow someone else to die in his place. Alcestis volunteered, and Thanatos came to claim Alcestis. Apollo prophesied that Hercules would rescue Alcestis from death. As a parergon during his 8th task, the Mare of Diomedes, he wrestled Thanatos and brought back Alcestis from the Underworld.

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Admetus, son of Pheres

The husband of Alcestis. Forgot to include a matrimonial sacrifice to Artemis, so he was supposed to die as punishment, but Alcestis took his place.

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Apollo

God of music, poetry, prophecy, and medicine. Served as a servant to Admetus as punishment for killing the Cyclopes and convinced the Fates to allow someone else to die in Admetus' place.

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Asclepius

son of Apollo, struck by Zeus

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Hercules

Apollo prophesied that Hercules would rescue Alcestis from death. As a parergon during his 8th task, the Mare of Diomedes, he wrestled Thanatos and brought back Alcestis from the Underworld.

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Xenia

"hospitality"; Admetus hosts Hercules

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Theseus

National Hero of Athens

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Euhemerism

interpretation of myths as traditional accounts of historical persons and events; how Plutarch portrayed Theseus

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Aegeus

Theseus' father? Lack of children --> his friend, Pittheus of Troezen offers Aegeus to sleep with his daughter Aethra. Child conceived --> leaves sword of Cecrops and sandals (tokens) under stone.

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Poseidon

Theseus' father? Slept with Aethra the same night as Aegeus.

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Periphetes the Club-bearer (1)

Theseus' first labor. Killed Periphetes and took his club. (like Hercules)

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Sinis this Pine-bender (2)

Theseus' second labor. Sinis was known for splitting travelers in two with pine trees. Theseus killed him the way he killed other people.

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Phaea, the sow of Crommyon (3)

Theseus' third labor. Killed the Crommyonian Sow. Phaea was either the name of the sow or an old hag.

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