1. cells and microscopy

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cell theory

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67 Terms

1

cell theory

where all living organisms are composed of one (unicellular) or more (multicellular) cells

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2

cell

basic structural and physiological unit of all living organisms and is the smallest unit capable of surviving independently, they are the site of metabolic process and contain genetic information

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3

field of view

circular area visible down a microscope

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4

magnification

number of times large an object appears

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5

resolution

ability to distinguish two distinct objects separately and see detail

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6

eyepiece graticule

scale inserted to eyepiece which is calibrated with a state micrometer and then used to measure cells

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7

stage micrometer

a slide with typically 1 mm ruler on it

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8

light microscope

a cheap low magnification microscope with limited resolution that requires little training and maintains natural colours (1500x, 200nm)

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9

transmission electron microscope

an electron microscope which produces a 2D black and white image at high resolution and magnification (500,000x, 0.1nm) expensive and requires training

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10

scanning electron microcsope

an electron microscope which passes a beam of electrons back and forth over a sample to produce a black and white 3D image, expensive and requires training, low resolution and magnification (100,000x, 0.1nm typiclay 5-20µm tho)

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11

confocal laser scanning microscope

light is scanned through an object and reflected or emitted light is detected, produces a 2D image or 3D image by stacking and requires less training than electron microscopes, lower magnification and low resolution (2000x, 200nm)

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12

transmission electron microscope preparation

complex preparation where tissue is fixed, dehydrated embedded in resin then very thin sections cut and stained using heavy metal salts finally placed on a copper grip in a vacuum

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13

scanning electron microscope preparation

variable ease of preparation, where samples surface is coated in gold atoms to scatter electrons

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14

confocal laser scanning microscope preparation

variable ease of preparation where samples may be combined with fluorescent markers

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15

methylene blue

stain which is able to be added to living cells without been fixed

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16

fixing

process to attach stain to tissue using alcohol which makes proteins and nucleic acids insoluble and kills the cells

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17

differential stain

a stain which stains different structures different colours to help identify them

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18

magnification calculation

image size (mm) ÷ actual size (nm or µm)

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19

1, 3, 2, 6, 5, 4

  1. place the stage micrometer on microscope and focus onto it with 4x lens

  2. workout length of 1 eye peice graticule division with the stage micrometer

  3. rotate eyepiece graticule to align with stage micrometer

  4. measure object with eyepiece graticule and calculate its length

  5. remove stage micrometer and place object under

  6. repeat with the each lens

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20

calculate eye peice graticule length

stage micrometer measurement (µm) ÷ divisions on eyepiece graticule

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21

1, 6, 2, 8, 5, 4, 7, 3, 9, 10

  1. wear latex free gloves

  2. a spreader at 45˚ is pushed along to spread blood by capillary action forming a smear

  3. dilute with distilled water and leave for 5-7mins

  4. fix with methanol

  5. air dry slide

  6. place a drop of blood on end of slide

  7. flood with leishman’s stain for 2 mins

  8. label slide

  9. wash slide to remove excess stain till it appears pale pink

  10. blot gently with filter paper and apply a coverslip

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22

latex free gloves worn

prevent contamination, protect from pathogens, reduce allergies and skin reactions

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23

leishman’s stain

a stain which contains methylene blue and eosin

stains different compounds different colours

methylene blue stains nucleic acids blue-purple

eosin stains cytoplasmic proteins pink-red

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24

erythrocyte/red blood cell

biconcave discs (squeeze and SA) no nucleus or mitochondria, lifespan of 120 days, carry oxygen and some CO2

<p>biconcave discs (squeeze and SA) no nucleus or mitochondria, lifespan of 120 days, carry oxygen and some CO2</p>
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25

thrombocyte/platelet

biconcave discs of cytoplasm fragments form megakaryocytes (giant cells) life span of 6-7 days. contribute to blood clotting and clot formation

<p>biconcave discs of cytoplasm fragments form megakaryocytes (giant cells) life span of 6-7 days. contribute to blood clotting and clot formation</p>
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26

neutrophil

most numerous leucocyte, multilobed nucleus (squeeze) granular cytoplasm containing lysosomes, engulf bacteria in phagocytosis, non specific

<p>most numerous leucocyte, multilobed nucleus (squeeze) granular cytoplasm containing lysosomes, engulf bacteria in phagocytosis, non specific</p>
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27

lymphocyte

smallest leukocyte, B and T versions, large darkly stained nucleus and clear cytoplasm with no granules, B produce immunoglobulins, helper T produce chemicals coordinating immune response and cytotoxic T destroy specific cells

<p>smallest leukocyte, B and T versions, large darkly stained nucleus and clear cytoplasm with no granules, B produce immunoglobulins, helper T produce chemicals coordinating immune response and cytotoxic T destroy specific cells</p>
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28

monocyte

largest leucocyte, large kidney bean nucleus, clear cytoplasm, few granules, darl stained nucleus, carry out phagocytosis

<p>largest leucocyte, large kidney bean nucleus, clear cytoplasm, few granules, darl stained nucleus, carry out phagocytosis</p>
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29

granulocytes

type of leucocytes with granules that is neutrophils

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30

agranulocytes

type of leucocytes with little granules that is monocytes and lymphocytes

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31

precautions when sampling own blood

swap wound with ethanol before and after and cover with dressing, don’t work with others blood, dispose of all materials in bleach, wash hands

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32

haemocytometer

chamber used to count cells, contains a 1mm by 1mm grid, count in 0.2mm square, 0.1mm depth, repeat 5 times

<p>chamber used to count cells, contains a 1mm by 1mm grid, count in 0.2mm square, 0.1mm depth, repeat 5 times</p>
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33

calculate cells in haemocytometer

1÷volume x number of cells x dilution factor

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34

north west rule

count cells touching top and left but not right or bottom middle line

<p>count cells touching top and left but not right or bottom middle line</p>
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35

3, 1, 5, 2, 6, 4

  1. apply a cover slip

  2. count cells in one small central square

  3. stir yeast cells in suspension and dilute using trypan blue to identify usable cells

  4. calculate mean

  5. introduce a sample under coverslip with a small pipette by capillary action

  6. count in 4 other small squares

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36

dacies fluid

used to dilute erythrocyte as it is isotonic preventing cells bursting or clumping

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37

trypan blue

used to dilute yeast or mammalian cells as it is taken up by dead cells

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38

flow cytometer

electronic counting apparatus to count and sort blood cells. By attaching fluorochromes to antigens which emit fluorescent light when a laser is shone

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39

compartmentalisation

internal structures of cells are divided by membranes

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40

organelles

intracellular structures with a specific function

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41

eukaryotic cells

plant and animal cells with a nucleus

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42

prokaryotic cells

bacteria cells with no nucleus

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43

nucleus

largest organelle sounded by double envelope (nuclear envelope) with pores, contains chromatin( DNA coiled around histones), controls activities of the cells by mRNA

<p>largest organelle sounded by double envelope (nuclear envelope) with pores, contains chromatin( DNA coiled around histones), controls activities of the cells by mRNA</p>
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44

nucleolus

dark patch in nucleus which produces rRNA and assembles ribosomes

<p>dark patch in nucleus which produces rRNA and assembles ribosomes</p>
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45

mitochondrion

spherical or sausage shaped, double membrane, inner is highly folded, site of aerobic respiration

<p>spherical or sausage shaped, double membrane, inner is highly folded, site of aerobic respiration</p>
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46

chloroplast

double membrane, contains stack of membrane bound compartments called thylakoids, site of photosynthesis, only in plants

<p>double membrane, contains stack of membrane bound compartments called thylakoids, site of photosynthesis, only in plants</p>
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47

golgi body

stack of membrane bound flattened sacs, receives proteins vesicles from RER and modifies them, the repackaged to vesicles

<p>stack of membrane bound flattened sacs, receives proteins vesicles from RER and modifies them, the repackaged to vesicles</p>
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48

vesicle

membrane bound sac moved within cells by cytoskeleton, transports materials around cells

<p>membrane bound sac moved within cells by cytoskeleton, transports materials around cells</p>
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49

ribosome

tiny organelle bound to RER or free in cytoplasm, made of 2 subunits of rRNA and proteins, site of protein synthesis

<p>tiny organelle bound to RER or free in cytoplasm, made of 2 subunits of rRNA and proteins, site of protein synthesis</p>
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50

rough endoplasmic reticulum RER

series of flattened membrane bound compartments called cisternae, continuous membrane with nuclear envelope, ribosomes on surface, packages proteins from ribosomes into vesicles

<p>series of flattened membrane bound compartments called cisternae, continuous membrane with nuclear envelope, ribosomes on surface, packages proteins from ribosomes into vesicles</p>
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51

smooth endoplasmic reticulum SER

series of flattened membrane bound compartments with no ribosomes, carry out lipid synthesis, metabolism and membrane formation

<p>series of flattened membrane bound compartments with no ribosomes, carry out lipid synthesis, metabolism and membrane formation</p>
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52

lysosome

spherical membrane bound vesicle produced by golgi body, contains hydrolytic enzymes, same function as vacuole, enzymes break down waste

<p>spherical membrane bound vesicle produced by golgi body, contains hydrolytic enzymes, same function as vacuole, enzymes break down waste</p>
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53

cytoskeleton

network of protein fibres, including microfilaments (actin), microtubules (tubulin), intermediate filaments (fibrous proteins), support cells and organelles, motor proteins use ATP to move organelles/molecules

<p>network of protein fibres, including microfilaments (actin), microtubules (tubulin), intermediate filaments (fibrous proteins), support cells and organelles, motor proteins use ATP to move organelles/molecules</p>
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54

pair of centrioles

cylinder of 9 triplets of microtubules, 2 are arranged at right angles to form centrosome, organise spindle fibres in nuclear division

<p>cylinder of 9 triplets of microtubules, 2 are arranged at right angles to form centrosome, organise spindle fibres in nuclear division</p>
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55

cillia

hair like extensions, 9+2 arrangement of microtubules, not really in plant cells, use ATP to beat and move fluids

<p>hair like extensions, 9+2 arrangement of microtubules, not really in plant cells, use ATP to beat and move fluids</p>
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56

eukaryotic flagellum

few long hair like extensions, 9+2 arrangement of microtubules, not really in plant cells, use ATP to beat and whole cell

<p>few long hair like extensions, 9+2 arrangement of microtubules, not really in plant cells, use ATP to beat and whole cell</p>
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57

cell wall

made of cellulose, located outside plasma membrane, gives shape and support, stops bursting, only in plants

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58

plasmodesmata

strands of cytoplasm that pass through channels in cell wall between adjacent cells, only in plants

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59

large permanent vacuole

fluid filled organelle, filled with water and solutes, pushes cytoplasm against cell wall making it turgid, only in plants

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60

tonoplast

membrane around vacuole which is selectively permeable

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61

circular DNA

genetic material of prokaryotic cell, naked and located in cytoplasm

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62

plasmid

small circular DNA in some prokaryotes, carry additional genes for a slective advantage

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63

pili of fimbriae

specific attachment of prokaryotes to other cells

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64

mesosome

infolded regions of cell surface of prokaryotes

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65

capsule

polysaccharide outside layer, attachment to surfaces, resists desiccation (drying up), protection against been engulfed, prokaryotic cells

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66

flagellum

long hair like extensions for movement

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67

7, 1, 2, 4, 6, 5, 8, 3, 9

order production of proteins:

  1. messenger RNA leaves by nuclear pore

  2. messenger RNA assembles to ribosome attached to RER

  3. vesicle fuses with plasma membrane

  4. ribosome reads mRNA and synthesis protein which is transported through RER and packaged into transport vesicle

  5. golgi apparatus modifies proteins and repackages them into secretory vesicle

  6. proteins transported in vesicles along cytoskeleton by motor proteins from RER to golgi apparatus

  7. a gene is transcribed into mRNA in nucleus

  8. vesicles carrying modified proteins are transported along cytoskeleton by motor proteins to cell surface

  9. membrane opens and modified proteins released

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