AP Psych Unit 9 Vocab

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49 Terms

1

accommodation

adapting our current understandings (schema) to incorporate new information

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2

adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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3

assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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4

attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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5

autism

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind

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6

basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

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7

cognition

all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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8

concrete operational stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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9

conservation

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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10

critical period

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

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11

cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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12

developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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13

egocentrism

in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view

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14

embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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15

emerging adulthood

for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

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16

fetal alcohol syndrome

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.

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17

fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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18

formal operational stage

in Piaget’s theory, stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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19

gender identity

our sense of being male or female

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20

gender role

a set of expected behaviors for males or for females

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21

gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

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22

habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure a visual stimulus. their interest wanes and they look away sooner

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23

identity

our sense self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

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24

imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

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25

intimacy

in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

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26

maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experienced

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27

menarche

the first menstrual period

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28

menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

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29

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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30

preoperational stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age), during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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31

primary sex characteristics

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

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puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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33

schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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34

secondary sex characteristics

non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

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35

self-concept

our understanding and evaluation of who we are

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36

sensorimotor stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activites

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37

social identity

the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships

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38

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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39

stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

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40

temperament

a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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41

teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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42

theory of mind

people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

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43

x chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.

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44

y chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

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45

zygote

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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46

fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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47

social clock

the right time/culturally preferred timing to do social events like marry or have kids

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48

crystallized intelligence

our gathered knowledge and verbal skills. This tends to increase with age

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49

longitudinal study

research where the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time

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