AP Bio - Unit 7: Evolution (overall summary)

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Law of Evolution

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1

Law of Evolution

The change in the genetic allele frequency of a population over time resulting in a change in phenotypic characteristics

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Allele Frequency

The incidence of gene variance

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5 Mechanisms of Evolution

Natural selection, mutation, gene flow, sexual selection, and genetic drift

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what is natural selection

  • happens at a INDIVIDUAL LEVEL

  • the adaptive trait (trait that promotes survival) persists

  • 4 conditions for natural selection (VOIDs)

    • Varience: differences due to random fertilization, crossing over, and independent assortment

    • Overpopulation: more of one species means some will have to die and the adaptive trait will become more prominent

    • Inheritance: parents pass on genes

    • Differential Survival: the struggle for existence means advantageous characteristics survivethe struggle for existence means advantageous characteristics survive

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5

Fitness

reproductive success

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Selection Pressure

Force that causes a population to evolve. The stronger it is the more change there is

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Mutation

a random change in DNA

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8

Gene Flow

The transfer of genes between different populations e.g. migration

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Sexual selection

The selection of a mate based on phenotypic characteristics

e.g. peacock feathers

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10

Genetic Drift

Chance event that causes change in SMALL POPULATIONS

2 types:

  • Bottleneck effect

    • Sudden disaster that happens to pick survivors with different alleles

  • Founder effect

    • A few individuals from one population start a new population and therefore change the allele frequencyA few individuals from one population start a new population and therefore change the allele frequency

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Evidence of Evolution

  • fossil record analysis

  • molecular evidence

  • experiments

  • observation

  • comparative anatomy (homologous vs analogous)

  • artificial selection (breeding)

  • comparative embryology

  • biogeography

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types of population selection

Directional, stabilizing, and disruptive

<p>Directional, stabilizing, and disruptive</p>
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Species

A group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring

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Hardy-Weinberg meaning and equation

Genetic variation will stay consistent across generations in the absence of disturbances

p = dominant

q = recessive

phenotypic frequency:

p² + 2pq + q² = 1

Allele Frequency:

p + q = 1

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15

speciation

The formation of a new and distinct species in the course of evolution

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2 Types of speciation

Allopatric and sympatric

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Allopatric Speciaiton

One species is separated by geographic environments they undergo allopatric speciation. If they were to meet again in the future they would not interbreed

e.g. california salamanders

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Sympatric Speciation

Even though both populations inhabit the same area, a new species evolves through pre-zygotic isolation

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Types of pre-zygotic isolation

Gamete Isolation

  • gametes cant fuse/fertilize

Behavioral Isolation

  • courtship displays and different

Mechanical Isolation

  • Incompatible sex organs

Temporal Isolation

  • mating timing becomes different (nocturnal vs diurnal)

Habitat Isolation

  • different habitats in the same location

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post-Zygotic isolation

prevents the creation of a fertile offspring

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Advantages of hybridization

favorable traits, survival of endangered species

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Disadvantages of hybridizaiton

low zygotic viability (severe abnormalities, fails to mature), infertility, low adult viability (low survival rate because traits arent suited for any environment)

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Micro evolution vs Macro evolution

micro: evolution in a short period of time (couple of generations)

macro: evolution over a long period of time

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Phylogeny

The history of the evolution of a species in reference to a line of ancestry

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evidence used in phylogeny (strongest to weakest)

  • DNA

  • Comparative anatomy

  • Developmental biology

  • Behavior

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26

cladogram

phylogenic tree

<p>phylogenic tree</p>
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shared trait

a trait shared between 2+ lineages

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conserved gene

a gene remained generally unchanged throughout most of the lineage

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