AP government (aka endless torture) unit 3 - congress

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Pork barrel spending

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125 Terms

1

Pork barrel spending

legislation the direct specific funds to projects within districts for states

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2

Logrolling

trading of votes on legislation by members of congress to get their earmarks passed into legislation

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3

oversight

effort by congress to ensure that executive branch agencies, bureaus, and cabinet departments, as well as their officials, are acting legally and in accordance with congressional goals

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4

Constituency

the body of voters who elect a representative for their area

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5

Apportionment

the process of determining the number of representatives for each state using census data

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6

Redistricting

states redrawing of boundaries of electoral districts following each census

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7

Gerrymandering

the intentional use of redistricting to benefit specific interest or group of voters

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8

Partisan gerrymandering

drawing of district boundaries into strange shapes to benefit a political party

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9

Majority-minority districts

a district in which voters of a minority ethnicity constitute and electoral majority within that electoral district

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10

Incumbency

being already in office as opposed to running for the first time

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11

Incumbency advantage

the institutional advantages held buy those already in office who are trying to fend off challengers in an election

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12

speaker of the house

the leader of the house of representatives, chosen by an election of its members

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13

political action committee

an organization that raises money for Canidates and campaigns

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14

house majority leader

the person who is the second in command of the house of representatives

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15

whip

a member of congress chosen by his or her party members, whose job is to ensure party unity and discipline

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16

minority leader

the head of the party with the second highest number of seats in congress, chosen by the party's members

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senate majority leader

the person who has the most power in the senate and is the head of the party with the most seats

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18

committee chair

leader of a congressional committee who has authority over the committee's agenda

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19

discharge petition

a motion filed by a member of congress to move a bill out of committee and onto the floor of the house of representatives for a vote

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20

house rules committe

a powerful committee that determines when a bill will be subject to debate and vote on the house floor, how long the debate will last, and whether amendments will be allowed on the floor

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committe of the whole

consists of all members of the house and meets in the house chamber but is governed by different rules, making it easier to consider complex and controversial legislation

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22

unanimous consent agreemnet

an agreement in the senate that sets the terms for consideration of a bill

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23

filibuster

a tactic though which an individual senator may use the right of unlimited debate to delay a motion or postpone action of a piece of legislation

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24

cloture

a procedure though which senators can end debate on a bill an proceed to action, provided 60 senators agree to it

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25

veto

the power of a president to reject a bill passed by congress, sending it back to the origination branch with objections

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26

office of management and budget

the executive branch office that assists the president in setting national spending priorities

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27

entitlement programs

a program that provides benefits for those who qualify under the law, regardless of income

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28

mandatory spending

spending required by existing laws that is locked in the budget

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discretionary spedning

spending for programs and policies at the discretion of congress and the president

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budget surplus

the amount of money remaining when the government takes in more than it spends

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budget deficit

the shortfall when a government takes in less money that it spends

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national debt

the total amount of money owed by the federal government

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33

delegate role

the idea that the main duty of a member of congress is to carry out constituents wishes

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trustee role

the idea that members of congress should act as trustees, making decisions based on their knowledge and judgment

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political role

representation where members of congress balance their choices with the interests of their constituents and parties in making decisions

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36

membership in house

435

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37

membership in senate

100

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38

number of members in house based on

population

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39

number of members in senate based on

fixed as 2 per state

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40

who is house elected by

district wide election, single member districts, based on plurality

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41

who is senate elected by

people of each state, state wide election, based on plurality

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42

house qualification

age > 25, 7 year citizen, resident of state (district)

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43

senate qualification

age > 30, 9 year citizen, resident of state

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44

congress location in constitution

article 1

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45

congress term

2 year terms, made up of 535, and 30,000 support staff

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46

structure of congress

bicameral

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47

dominant race of congress

white men

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48

what is the house "cup"

must consider popular opinion more (constituents want).

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49

incumbent advantage

already hold the position, more experience Gerrymandered districts: districts w/more of their own party voters Name recognition by constituents Better fund-raising skills due to doing it more Casework and helping constituents solve problems

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50

senate "the saucer"

Originally were chosen by each legislature, since 17th Amendment people in each state choose 100 members with a more cautious , experienced group to serve as a check

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senate terms

Only 1/3 of Senate up for re-election every 2 years (continuous body) 6 year terms, allows them to temper the popular ideas of the House since re-election not as quick

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expressed powers

listed/expressed 1 by 1 in the US Const

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53

Power of the Purse

Power to raise revenue (to tax) Power to create budget & appropriate/allots money Power to coin money

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54

Regulate Commerce

Congress’s power to regulate trade between two or more states, foregin countries and with native tribes Gibbons v. Ogden 1824 legitimized this power and expanded it to waterways as well It is one of the more contested powers with cases in front of Sup. Ct. (US v. Lopez 1995) It has used this power to fight for civil rights, protect environment, guns more safe, even healthcare (ACA)

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55

Foreign & military Affairs

Raises an army & navy Mandates draft or mandatory enlistment procedures Declares war (democratic not autocratic); War Powers Act: Presidents have 60 days to use military w/out a declaration of war or funding, after 60 days must seek congressional permission Funds all military & sets all military salary schedules

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56

Implied Powers: (AKA Elastic Clause, Necessary & proper clause):

not expressed in US Constitution, but implied or necessary for carrying out Expressed powers Its root is clause 18 of Expressed powers which allows Congress “to do all which is necessary & proper” in carrying out the previously stated Expressed powers These powers were challenged and were deemed legit in McCulloch v. Maryland 1819

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57

Exclusive Powers

powers given to national govt. which cannot be practiced by any other level

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58

powers of house

Power to create revenue (tax laws) Selects the president if no candidate wins electoral college (51% simple majority) Power to impeach federal officers (treason, bribery, high crimes & misdemeanors), 51% vote Must approve all legislation with a 51% vote

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59

powers of senate

Power to advise & consent major presidential appointments (cabinet sec. & Fed. Judges) Often recommend people for positions in executive branch & federal courts Must approve all treaties with foreign nations with a 2/3 favorable vote Decides if impeachment charges serious enough to warrant a trial and vote to remove (2/3 vote) Must approve all legislation with a 51% vote (unless filibuster threat then 60% vote)

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60

congress check on executive branch

Impeachment power (House) Trial of impeachments (Senate) Selection of the President (House) and Vice President (Senate) in the case of no majority of electoral votes May override Presidential vetoes Senate approves departmental appointments Senate approves treaties and ambassadors Approval of replacement Vice President Power to declare war Power to enact taxes and allocate funds President must, from time-to-time, deliver a State of the Union address

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61

congress check on judicial branch

Senate approves federal judges Impeachment power (House) Trial of impeachments (Senate) Power to initiate constitutional amendments Power to set courts inferior to the Supreme Court Power to set jurisdiction of courts Power to alter the size of the Supreme Court

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62

reapportionment

After the census report, the state legislatures of the unites states are told how any representatives their state sends to the house of the representatives

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63

Reapportionment act of 1842

required that congressional districts be contiguous and compact

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64

Wesberry v. Sanders 1962 Supreme Court case

district must follow the principle of “one man, one vote”

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65

Supreme Court ruling in 1985

ruled that manipulation district border to give and advantage to one political party was (unconstitutional)

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66

packing

concentrating voting power of the opposition into only a few districts

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67

cracking

during the voting power of the opposition across many districts, preventing the opposition from having a majority vote in as many districts as possible

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68

stacking

drawing bizarre boundaries to concentrate the power of the majority party by linking distant areas into specific party in power districts.

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69

Malapportionment

when one group has more significance than the other

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70

Speaker of the House

  1. Elected by the whole of the house of representatives

  2. the Speaker acts as leader of the House and combines several roles: a. The institutional role of presiding officer and administrative head of the house

b. The role of leader of the majority party in the House

c. The representative role of an elected member of the House.

d. The Speaker of the House is second in line to succeed the president, after the vice President.

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71

who is current speaker of the house

nancy pelosi

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72

majority leader of house

  1. This officer is charged with scheduling legislation for floor consideration

  2. planning the daily, weekly, and annual legislative agendas

  3. consulting with members to gauge party sentiment

  4. Generally working to advance the goals of the majority party.

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73

who is current majority leader of house

steny hamilton hoyer

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74

Minority Leader of the House

  1. The minority leader serves as floor leader of the "loyal opposition," and is the minority counterpart to the speaker.

  2. Although many of the basic leadership responsibilities of the minority and majority leaders are similar, the minority leader speaks for minority party and its policies and works to protect the minority's rights.

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75

who is current minority leader

kevin mccarthy

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76

house majority and minority whip

  1. The Whip assists the party leadership in managing the party's legislative program on the house floor.

  2. The Whip provides a communications network for the party members and mobilizes them for important party measures coming up for a vote.

  3. When in the majority, the Whip is the third highest post in the conference. When in the minority the Whip is the second highest position behind the Leader.

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77

who is house majority whip

james clyburn

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78

who is house minority whip

steve scalise

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79

president of senate

  1. The constitution names the vice president of the United States as the president of the senate.

  2. In addition to serving as presiding officer, the vice president has the sole power to break a tie vote in the Senate and formally presides over the receiving and counting of electoral ballots cast in presidential elections.

  3. today vice presidents serve as principal advisors to the president, but from 1789 until the 1950s their primary duty was to preside over the senate.

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80

who is president of senate (you should know this)

kamala harris

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81

President Pro Tempore of the Senate

  1. The Constitution instructs the Senate to choose a president pro tempore to preside over the Senate in the absence of the vice president.

  2. Although the Constitution does not specify who can serve as president pro tempore, the senate has dictated that the senior member of the majority party serve as president pro tempore. Honorary position

  3. President pro tempore may administer all oaths required by the Constitution, may sign legislation, may jointly preside with the Speaker of the House when the two houses sit together in joint sessions or joint meetings, and may fulfill all other obligations of the presiding officer.

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82

who is president pro tempore of state

Patrick leahy

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83

Senate Majority and minority Leader

  1. The Senate floor leaders are elected by the conferences of their party in the Senate at the beginning of each term.

  2. Depending on which party is in power, one serves as majority leader and the other as minority leader.

  3. The leaders serve as spokesperson for their parties positions on issues.

  4. The majority leader schedules the daily legislative programs and fashions the unanimous consent agreements that govern the time for debate.

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84

who is senate majority leader

chuck shumer (charles)

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85

who is senate minority leader

mitch McConnel (guy who looks like a turtle)

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86

Standing Committees

A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area

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87

select/special committee

A congressional committee created for a specific purpose, sometimes to conduct an investigation

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Joint Committees

A committee composed of members of both the House of Representatives and the Senate

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89

conference committee

a temporary, ad hoc panel composed of House and Senate conferees formed for the purpose of reconciling differences in legislation that has passed both chambers

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90

public bill

applies to the nation as a whole

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91

private bill

applies to certain people or places

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92

how is bill introduced in house

bill is given to a representative and can show it off and sticks it in a Hopper, given an HRB #, and sent off to the appropriate committee

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93

how is bill introduced in senate

bill is given to a senator, and he can seek further support, introduces it, gives it an SB#, and sends off to appropriate committee

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94

what happens in phase 2 of bill

in the committee. After a committee, it is sent to subcommittee. Hearing is granted for opponents and proponents, the bill can be revised and made more passable. Final version voted by sub-committees, majority in favor then it moves to full committee for a vote. 3 agencies are CRS, GAO, and CBO- congressional budget office (tax dollars).

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95

5 possible actions of reporting a bill

reporting the bill favorably, refusing to report the bill, reporting the bill in amended form, report a committee bill, report the bill with unfavorable recommendation

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96

what happens in phase 3 of bill

floor action. The issues found that the committees and subcommittees came up with are debated. Quorum is needed to discuss bills, it means a “majority” of the members must be there. Open/closed rules apply if amendment allowed during debate

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97

Four possible ways of voting

voice vote (99% in senate), the most common, standing vote, teller vote and roll-call vote (electronic in House)

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98

Three types of positions include

trustee, politico, delegate.

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99

Descriptive representation

congress members mirroring the makeup of the country. Substantive is where members of congress represent the interests and policy preferences of their constituents but might not look like it (ex: black constituents but latino member of congress).

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100

debate time in house is...

more formal as it has more groups with 5 minutes maximum, while senate is more informal. Filibuster is an attempt to delay a vote from taking place. Usually conducted by minority to prevent majority from voting and casting their opinions. New filibuster is different because it requires unanimous consent vote

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