PSY 336 FINAL STUDY GUIDE

studied byStudied by 76 People
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Distal Stimulus

1/56

Studying Progress

New cards
56
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
56 Terms
New cards

Distal Stimulus

the object/event that can actually exist in the world (Ex: the tree or beeping of your phone)

<p>the object/event that can actually exist in the world (Ex: the tree or beeping of your phone)</p>
New cards
New cards

Proximal Stimulus

the physical phenomenon evoked by a distal stimulus that impinges on the specialized cells of the relevant sense.(What activates neurotransmitters, light photons, sound waves, etc. Ex: the reflected light or sound wave. )

<p>the physical phenomenon evoked by a distal stimulus that impinges on the specialized cells of the relevant sense.(What activates neurotransmitters, light photons, sound waves, etc. Ex: the reflected light or sound wave. )</p>
New cards
New cards

Sensation

Direct measure of some aspect of the environment. Allows you to respond to the world. Measures some property of the external world (Physical Stim)

<p>Direct measure of some aspect of the environment. Allows you to respond to the world. Measures some property of the external world (Physical Stim)</p>
New cards
New cards

Perception

Something from the world & our brain reacts to it. (Reflex; How your brain interprets the stimulus)

<p>Something from the world &amp; our brain reacts to it. (Reflex; How your brain interprets the stimulus)</p>
New cards
New cards

Absolute Threshold

Minimal intensity to detect a stimulus. Defined as the stimulus intensity leading to a 50/50 balance between "yes" & "no" responses.

<p>Minimal intensity to detect a stimulus. Defined as the stimulus intensity leading to a 50/50 balance between &quot;yes&quot; &amp; &quot;no&quot; responses.</p>
New cards
New cards

Resting Potential

Neuron potential when not firing (-70 mV, 70 less than outside)

<p>Neuron potential when not firing (-70 mV, 70 less than outside)</p>
New cards
<p>Eye Anatomy</p>
New cards
<p>Eye Anatomy</p>

Eye Anatomy

<p>Eye Anatomy</p>

Know Retina, Lens, Fovea, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway

<p>Know Retina, Lens, Fovea, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway</p>
New cards
New cards

Retina

Holds photoreceptors

<p>Holds photoreceptors</p>
New cards
New cards

Lens

Bends to refract light to retina

<p>Bends to refract light to retina</p>
New cards
New cards

Fovea

Lots of cones, high acuity.

<p>Lots of cones, high acuity.</p>
New cards
New cards

Optic Nerve

Blindspot where it goes in.

<p>Blindspot where it goes in.</p>
New cards
New cards

Visual Pathway

Left hits right retina, crossing over, etc.

<p>Left hits right retina, crossing over, etc.</p>
New cards
New cards

Functional Specialization

Areas specialize in what they process. Specific to senses.

New cards
New cards

Cortical Magnification in V1

More space dedicated to foveal RF. The foveal region of the retina is magnified in the cortex relative to the peripheral regions of the retina.

<p>More space dedicated to foveal RF. The foveal region of the retina is magnified in the cortex relative to the peripheral regions of the retina.</p>
New cards
<p>Perceptual Interpolation</p>
New cards
<p>Perceptual Interpolation</p>

Perceptual Interpolation

<p>Perceptual Interpolation</p>

Edges and surfaces assumed to perceive objects as whole.

<p>Edges and surfaces assumed to perceive objects as whole.</p>
New cards
New cards

Border Ownership

Assume the border belongs to only one object in our visual field.

<p>Assume the border belongs to only one object in our visual field.</p>
New cards
New cards

Grandmother Cell

Cell dedicated to grandmother recognition.

<p>Cell dedicated to grandmother recognition.</p>
New cards
New cards

Photopigment Bleaching

When a photopigment absorbs a photon, it takes a bit of time before it’s ready to absorb a new one.

Cell runs out of chemicals to send. Can't send signals, stop seeing color. Stare at bright red light, stare at white screen, green. Causes Afterimage.

<p>When a photopigment absorbs a photon, it takes a bit of time before it’s ready to absorb a new one.</p><p></p><p>Cell runs out of chemicals to send. Can&apos;t send signals, stop seeing color.  Stare at bright red light, stare at white screen, green. Causes Afterimage.</p>
New cards
<p>Color Constancy</p>
New cards
<p>Color Constancy</p>

Color Constancy

<p>Color Constancy</p>

"We take cues from our surroundings to perceive color." Observed light is the product of the SPD (spectral power distribution) of the illumination & reflectance of the object.

<p>&quot;We take cues from our surroundings to perceive color.&quot; Observed light is the product of the SPD (spectral power distribution) of the illumination &amp; reflectance of the object.</p>
New cards
<p>Binocular Disparity</p>
New cards
<p>Binocular Disparity</p>

Binocular Disparity

<p>Binocular Disparity</p>

Difference in the relative positions of objects in the retinal images of the two eyes.

<p>Difference in the relative positions of objects in the retinal images of the two eyes.</p>
New cards
New cards

Oculomotor Cues

Feedback from muscles around and within the eye. Cues from eye movement. Include Accommodation and Convergence.

<p>Feedback from muscles around and within the eye. Cues from eye movement. Include Accommodation and Convergence.</p>
New cards
New cards

Accommodation

Relaxing (thinner lens, weaker focus, distant objects) and contracting (thicker lens, stronger focus, closer objects) the ciliary muscles changes the shape of the lens. Relays information for objects within about 2 meters.

<p>Relaxing (thinner lens, weaker focus, distant objects) and contracting (thicker lens, stronger focus, closer objects) the ciliary muscles changes the shape of the lens. Relays information for objects within about 2 meters.</p>
New cards
New cards

Convergence

Eyes turn inward to keep objects in focus.

<p>Eyes turn inward to keep objects in focus.</p>
New cards
New cards

Deletion and Accretion

Objects are occluded (deleted) or revealed from behind occlusion (accreted). Specific distance where eyes do not cross.

<p>Objects are occluded (deleted) or revealed from behind occlusion (accreted). Specific distance where eyes do not cross.</p>
New cards
New cards

Bimodal Neurons

Respond to TWO modalities (kinds of senses such as visual and tactile).

New cards
New cards

Motion Aftereffect

Cells get tired, perceive things spinning in one direction as spinning in the opposite.

<p>Cells get tired, perceive things spinning in one direction as spinning in the opposite.</p>
New cards
New cards

Broadbent's Filter Theory of Attention

"People do not process unattended stimuli beyond basic physical properties." States that Information is unavailable for later recall.

<p>&quot;People do not process unattended stimuli beyond basic physical properties.&quot; States that Information is unavailable for later recall.</p>
New cards
<p>Cocktail Party Problem</p>
New cards
<p>Cocktail Party Problem</p>

Cocktail Party Problem

<p>Cocktail Party Problem</p>

Attend to and understand a single convo in a sea of noise. Other conversations are unattended.

<p>Attend to and understand a single convo in a sea of noise. Other conversations are unattended.</p>
New cards
New cards

Attention Cueing

Response time faster to the area that attention is allocated to.

New cards
New cards

Divided Attention

Ability to pay attention to more than one thing at once.

<p>Ability to pay attention to more than one thing at once.</p>
New cards
New cards

Top-Down vs Bottom-Up Attention

Top-Down Control: Voluntary attention, reflects deliberate conscious goals. “Goal-relevant stimuli.”

Bottom-Up Control: When low-level stimuli “capture” attention independent from the observer’s goals or intentions.

\n

Top down is effortful conscious focus (trying to take notes at mach 5). Bottom up is whatever grabs your attention against your will (a gunshot). Voluntary vs. Involuntary.

<p>Top-Down Control: Voluntary attention, reflects deliberate conscious goals. “Goal-relevant stimuli.”</p><p>Bottom-Up Control: When low-level stimuli “capture” attention independent from the observer’s goals or intentions.</p><p>\n</p><p></p><p>Top down is effortful conscious focus (trying to take notes at mach 5). Bottom up is whatever grabs your attention against your will (a gunshot). Voluntary vs. Involuntary.</p>
New cards
New cards

Loudness

Perception of how loud something is, amplitude. Physical pressure of sound.

New cards
<p>Ear Anatomy</p>
New cards
<p>Ear Anatomy</p>

Ear Anatomy

<p>Ear Anatomy</p>

Know Pinna and Cochlea

<p>Know Pinna and Cochlea</p>
New cards
New cards

Pinna

Weird ear wiggle shape. Useful in perceiving elevation.

<p>Weird ear wiggle shape. Useful in perceiving elevation.</p>
New cards
New cards

Cochlea

In the inner ear. Contains the organ of Corti, produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations.

<p>In the inner ear. Contains the organ of Corti, produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations.</p>
New cards
New cards

Aphasias

Broca's and Wernicke's

<p>Broca&apos;s and Wernicke&apos;s</p>
New cards
New cards

Broca's Aphasia

Frontal lobe damage, impaired production but intact comprehension. (If it’s Broca [broke-a], you can’t talk-a)

<p>Frontal lobe damage, impaired production but intact comprehension. (If it’s Broca [broke-a], you can’t talk-a)</p>
New cards
New cards

Wernicke's Aphasia

Near the temporal junction, impaired comprehension but intact production. Can't read either.

<p>Near the temporal junction, impaired comprehension but intact production. Can&apos;t read either.</p>
New cards
New cards

Merkel's Disks

Small RF, high tactile acuity. On fingertips, useful for feeling small textures.

<p>Small RF, high tactile acuity. On fingertips, useful for feeling small textures.</p>
New cards
<p>Pacinian Corpuscles</p>
New cards
<p>Pacinian Corpuscles</p>

Pacinian Corpuscles

<p>Pacinian Corpuscles</p>

Deep pressure and vibration. Large RFs.

<p>Deep pressure and vibration. Large RFs.</p>
New cards
New cards

Two-Point Threshold

Smallest distance to be able to tell if 2 stimuli can be detected. Sensitive parts have higher acuity.

<p>Smallest distance to be able to tell if 2 stimuli can be detected. Sensitive parts have higher acuity.</p>
New cards
New cards

C-Tactile Mechanoreceptors

The Good Feels transmitters. Free nerve endings present only in hair skin, respond to slow gentle touch

New cards
New cards

Neuropathic Pain

DMG to peripheral or central nervous system, causes pain in the areas that the nerve is normally linked to. (Arising from damage to the nervous system)

<p>DMG to peripheral or central nervous system, causes pain in the areas that the nerve is normally linked to. (Arising from damage to the nervous system)</p>
New cards
New cards

Thermoreceptors

Fire to sudden change in temp, fast

New cards
<p>Dorsal Root Ganglion</p>
New cards
<p>Dorsal Root Ganglion</p>

Dorsal Root Ganglion

<p>Dorsal Root Ganglion</p>

Sensory info to the dorsal part of the spinal cord. Senses pain, temperature, and touch.

<p>Sensory info to the dorsal part of the spinal cord. Senses pain, temperature, and touch.</p>
New cards
New cards

Otolith Organs

The wiggly shit in your ear that helps you understand which way your head is tilted.

<p>The wiggly shit in your ear that helps you understand which way your head is tilted.</p>
New cards
<p>Somatosensory Cortex</p>
New cards
<p>Somatosensory Cortex</p>

Somatosensory Cortex

<p>Somatosensory Cortex</p>

Processing tactile info, in anterior parietal lobe. Weird naked homunculus dude. Right next to the motor cortex. There's apparently a motor homunculus. RFs correlated to sensitivity of part they're wired to.

<p>Processing tactile info, in anterior parietal lobe. Weird naked homunculus dude. Right next to the motor cortex. There&apos;s apparently a motor homunculus. RFs correlated to sensitivity of part they&apos;re wired to.</p>
New cards
New cards

Contextual Info (Smell)

Bad at distinguishing smell alone. Context info used to help perceive it.

New cards
<p>Adaptation</p>
New cards
<p>Adaptation</p>

Adaptation

<p>Adaptation</p>

Reduced sensitivity to odorants which we are continuously exposed to. (Why you don’t smell your perfume after some time)

<p>Reduced sensitivity to odorants which we are continuously exposed to.  (Why you don’t smell your perfume after some time)</p>
New cards
New cards

Cross Adaptation

Adapt to odorants that are similar. Lemon and Lime smells weaken each other.

<p>Adapt to odorants that are similar. Lemon and Lime smells weaken each other.</p>
New cards
<p>Olfactory System Path</p>
New cards
<p>Olfactory System Path</p>

Olfactory System Path

<p>Olfactory System Path</p>

Doesn't go through thalamus, direct paths to olfactory cortex.

<p>Doesn&apos;t go through thalamus, direct paths to olfactory cortex.</p>
New cards
New cards

Smell to Hippocampus

Smells super tied to memories. Tied to amygdala too.

<p>Smells super tied to memories. Tied to amygdala too.</p>
New cards
<p>Taste Receptor Cell</p>
New cards
<p>Taste Receptor Cell</p>

Taste Receptor Cell

<p>Taste Receptor Cell</p>

Transduces taste info.

<p>Transduces taste info.</p>
New cards
<p>Primary Taste Cortex (Gustatory Cortex)</p>
New cards
<p>Primary Taste Cortex (Gustatory Cortex)</p>

Primary Taste Cortex (Gustatory Cortex)

<p>Primary Taste Cortex (Gustatory Cortex)</p>

Where taste quality (elements of flavor and identification) is processed. Parietal lobe.

<p>Where taste quality (elements of flavor and identification) is processed. Parietal lobe.</p>
New cards
<p>Orbitofrontal Cortex</p>
New cards
<p>Orbitofrontal Cortex</p>

Orbitofrontal Cortex

<p>Orbitofrontal Cortex</p>

Where we process the reward value of food.

<p>Where we process the reward value of food.</p>
New cards
New cards

Lateral Inhibition

Excited neurons reduce activity in their neighbors. Increases contrast. Nearby neurons don't send signals. Not just visual.

New cards