Hist 106 Exam 1 Review TAMU (Lec 1-6)

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The Civil War

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US History

177 Terms

1

The Civil War

Fought over Slavery 750k-1M dead

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2

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation

Wartime only Slaves in Confederate states proclaimed free

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3

13th Amendment

Slavery is now illegal

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4

Freedmen's Bureau

A government agency that helped assimilate former slaves into society

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5

America's focus after the Civil War

Reconstruction

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6

Lincoln after the Civil War

To welcome the South back into the Union; to reunite and move forward. Many disagreed John Wilkes Booth assassinates Lincoln

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7

President Andrew Johnson

disinterested in former slaves; did the bare minimum

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8

Confederate states after Civil War:

They could only rejoin Union if they ratified the 13 Amendment They created Black Codes (laws to ensure white dominance) -- African Americans could not vote, own weapons, drink alcohol, mix with whites, etc.

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9

Klu Klux Klan

Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest Formed to maintain White Supremacy and safeguard southern Christian values

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10

Radical Reconstruction

Republicans (Party of Lincoln) v Democrats (Party of Slavery) Radical Recon led by Thaddeus Stevens (R)

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11

Civil Rights Act

(1866) anyone born in US was a citizen

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12

14th Amendment

right to Due Process; discrimination on race prohibited the "male" right to vote (equal citizenship to former slaves)

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13

Reconstruction Act

the South put under military occupation to protect former slaves Must ratify 14th Amendment & end Black codes in order for military to leave They did, but AA persecution worsened, so military didn't leave

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14

First president every impeached (charged with a crime)

Andrew Johnson

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15

African American Political Gains

First Senator elected in Mississippi = Hiram Revels & Blanche Bruce First Lt. Governor elected in Louisiana = P.B.S Pinchback

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16

African American Religion

Baptist = pro-slavery beliefs

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17

1868 Presidential Election

Ulysses S. Grant (R) shared Lincoln's vision for African Americans African American votes win him the Presidency Union army hunts down KKK = pushed underground but not eradicated

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18

Matthew Gaines

Elected to Texas State Legislature Major push for public education Still segregated though

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19

Morrill Act

States could apply for land for universities/educational institutions Land was taken from Native Americans Universities were segregated (Texas A&M vs Prairie View A&M)

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20

Women's Rights Individuals

Susan B Anthony Elizabeth Cady Stanton

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21

AERA

American Equal Rights Association Merged from National Women's Rights Convention & American Anti-Slavery Society

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22

15th Amendment

the right to vote regardless of race (but not gender)

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23

AERA dissolves

Women & AA movements clashed; which was more important? Anthony/Stanton form the National Women's Suffrage Association Separated women's rights & AA advocacy; limited to white women

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24

Limits to Reconstruction

Southern economy in ruins Freedmen's Bureau gave Confederate lands to freedmen = unconstitutional Former slaves could not obtain land, so were limited to sharecropping system, thus remaining obligated to white landowners and staying in poverty

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25

Sharecropping System

A landlord gives a tenant a portion of land to sell crops from Used initially for former slaves who had to work on white plantations to make income

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26

End of Reconstruction

Southern military occupation had to end. Reconstruction was no longer popular.

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27

1876 Presidential Election

Rutherford B Hayes (R) v Samuel Tilden (D) Both sides claimed victory Hayes supposedly one by one point

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28

Compromise of 1877

The Democrats would give the Republicans the presidency if they military left the south and promised not to interfere in state matters anymore Hayes/Reps agree = abandoning former slaves in the South Makes way for Jim Crow Segregation

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29

Westward Expansion (pre-Civil War)

Didn't happen because of slavery issues (free/slave states) 1840s -- TX annexed, NM, AZ, CA taken from Mexico

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30

Drivers of Westward Expansion

Slavery (new territory) Resources (minerals, mines) Rapid Industrialization (railroad expansions)

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31

Westward Expansion Consequences

Expeditions destructive: 15M bison dropped to a few hundred in 30 years) Native Americans = expansion is encroachment! Americas = expansion is wealth extraction and adventure!

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32

The Mormons

Church of the Latter Day Saints of Jesus Christ Founded by Joseph Smith in NY "God's Chosen People" A new Jerusalem in America Mormon "Exceptionalism" Plural Marriage condemned by other denominations (immoral) Divided on Slavery Not received well --- called blasphemous & persecuted = fled West

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33

The Mormons -- Conflict

Joseph Smith killed in Nauvoo, IL (was criticized, declared martial law, ordered newspaper burned down, mob attacked him in response) Brigham Young became leader; moved to Utah Mini Mormon War: Young though church would decide leaders/governors, not Utah citizens. Brief war breaks out over this & plural marriage = ends with Popular Sovereignty & Young removed. the Quid Pro Quo: plural marriage legal until 1909 for legal reasons

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34

Westward Expansion (Post-Civil War)

Land Rush: Kansas population 30k -- 500k + Texas population 250k -- 2M Everyone went West BUT it was Native American land!

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35

The Homestead Act

any male could apply for 160 acres of land West of the Mississippi & it would become their afters 5 years

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36

Indian Removal Policy

Get the Native Americans to move through treaties (although it was bad land) Native American's who didn't move = intimidated and harassed until they did US Army eventually used violence to drive them out Policy deeply unpopular = resulted in the Indian Wars

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37

Dakota Sioux War 1862

Dakota Sioux attacked Minnesota settlers 38 Sioux sentenced to death Settlers demanded Indians be forced onto "Reservations"

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38

Sand Creek Massacre

Colorado Cheyenne massacred Native Americans while their leader was away negotiating a peace treaty

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39

Board of Indian Commissioners

Established by President Grant Goal = christianize Native Americans & lift up inferior race (peaceful coercion) No NA's on the board; only Protestants who wanted Christian assimilation NA culture/religion different though -- Board's goal failed = violent coercion

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40

Federal Ultimatum 1874

Any tribes who did not move to Reservations were "hostile" and would be hunted down.

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41

Comanche Red River War

Comanche defeated and forced onto Reservations in OK

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42

Red Cloud's War (Sioux)

A victory for NA Great Sioux Reservation created

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43

The Great Sioux War & Battle of Little Bighorn 1876

Sitting Bull had visions of victory against the US... LBH: 2500 Sioux v 700 US Cavalry Leader George Custer didn't think they needed reinforcements (wrong) -- Romanticized like the Alamo George Custer: controversial, egomaniac, believed NAs were inferior, overly confident

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44

Final Acceptance of Reservations

US Army ruthlessly hunted down Sitting Bull & hostile NA tribes (Navajo, Nez Perce, Comanche, Mahoawk) = all forced onto Reservations

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45

Dawes Allotment Act

basically the Homestead Act for NAs It individualized tribes and ruined tribal dependence.

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46

Ghost Dance

Prophet Wovoka claimed Indian Messiah created new afterlife & if NAs lived peacefully in this life, they would earn this afterlife The Ghost Dance became a commonplace ritual amongst the tribes US Gov worried about the NAs "losing the way" & killing white people = created laws banning the dance & forced Christian conversions "Kill the Indian, but save the man."

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47

Wounded Knee

Sitting Bull accidentally killed. Ghost Dancers fled, but were caught; weapon goes off, 290 NAs killed (most women & children) Some Americans celebrated; total extermination of Indians = safety Some said wanted military campaign to end & leave the Ghost Dancers alone. NAs endured reservations believing they would have a better life after death.

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48

The First Rodeo

In Peco, TX 1883 Settled disputes -- not entertainment Redefined American rural masculinity - skill & social standing Was eventually capitalized on

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49

Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show

Stereotyped Indians, bank robbers, cowboys, and damsels in distress Highly popular - last chance to see "authentic" Indian culture Wild West Mythology strengthened by books and movies Many believed it was real; it wasn't...it was escapism!

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50

The Turner Thesis

Frederick Jackson Turner 1893 Argued that the Frontier fundamentally shaped the American identity Conquering the Frontier made Americans uniquely tough, resilient, determined, and democratic. But it was a safety valve-the low educated and criminals were actually making the frontier while everyone else was industrializing the east Westward expansion now = "civilization"

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51

Bessemer Process

Combined iron & carbon = cheap but strong steel Revolutionizes the steel industry; kicked off 2nd industrial revolution

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52

Louis Pasteur

Cholera/rabies vaccine

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53

Henri Toussaint

anthrax vaccines

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54

Robert Koch

tuberculosis treatments

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55

Pasteurization

combats harmful bacteria in food so it lasts longer

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56

Effects of New Developments

Deaths from disease decrease Food quality, lifespans, and populations increase

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57

Werner von Siemens

electrical generator 1967 machines became smaller/complex sewing machines, irons, refrigerators London Underground, Paris Metro, New York Subway

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58

Carl Benz

first working automobile 1885

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59

Rudolf Diesel

first diesel engine 1897 petroleum industry increases as a result

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60

Henry Ford

assembly line process 1903

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61

John Dunlap

rubber tire production 1887 the Michelin Company 1990 Michelin Travel Guides (railroads, automobiles, travel!)

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62

Battle of Hampton Roads

1862, ironclads used changed the face of naval warfare forever

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63

Naval Advancements

1870s: ironclads (coastal going, small) 1880s: pre-deadnoughts/armored cruisers (ocean going, cannons on side) 1892: US Navy first pre-dreadnought USS Texas 1906: HMS Dreadnought (first dreadnought with cannons in rotating turrets) 1896: Holland IV, first submarine

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64

Thomas Edison

Electrical Generators and the Light Bulb 1879 Seen as overly ambitious; promised inventions every ten days & bigger projects every six months Electricity changed everything; buildings got taller, railroads, factories operate 24 hours a day

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65

Alexander Graham Bell

the Telephone 1876 - Bell Telephone Company (AT&T today) Initially offered to sell idea to West Union for 100k but no one believed in it

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66

Guglielmo Marconi

the "Wireless" (the Radio) Radio waves would travel further if antennas were taller (Eiffel Tower)

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67

Kodak Eastman

the Box Brownies (the Camera) 1888 Tourism had increased with postcards → camera makes it easier!

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68

Railroads

29,000 miles of track in 1860 163,562 miles of track in 1890 Carriages, engines, and steel tracks became easier to produce

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69

Scientific Management

Frederick Taylor (Taylorism) Skilled laborers in short supply - can't meet demand! Broke down the process into stages with assembly line Even unskilled workers can do it More efficient, faster production, cheaper labor costs (lower wages) Henry Ford adopted Taylorism for car manufacturing

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70

Immigration

Pre-Civil War: German and Irish Post-Civil War: Italians, Polish, Eastern Europeans

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71

How did immigrants assimilate and how did Americans accommodate it?

Many immigrants banded together in American cities, retaining culture through Immigrant Solidarity - little integrated parts of cities (Little Italy, Chinatown, French Quarter) A renounced effort to retain culture even if they are willing to change social, economic, and political ways to align with America

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72

Consequences of Immigration & Urbanization

Overcrowding, crime, disease - but the industrial revolution created city parks, schools, and clean drinking water! American cities got bigger! (800% from 1870-1900) 18 million immigrants came to US from 1870-1900 Increase in Catholicism Suburbs: changed geography of US by spreading further and further

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73

National Womens' Suffrage Association

popular in cities

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74

Women's Temperance Movement

alcohol was the source of evil and immorality, and needed to be banned

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75

Early Feminist Movements

Increased women's political advocacy: public health, hygiene, schools, drinking water, criticizing political corruption "Feminism" seen as undermining Masculinity and Christian gender roles

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76

Charlotte Perkins Gilman 1982

The Yellow Newspaper Women labeled "clinically insane" if they produced any feminist tendencies, opinions, or showed any intelligence Argued men should have tried harder to suppress women's opinions = Muscular Christianity Brought about the YMCA, Boy Scouts, "Bodybuilding"

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77

New South Boosters

advocates of investment in the south -- steel, iron, tobacco, textiles, shipbuilding all increased

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78

The "New" South

industrialization invigorated the South; shake off the past of slavery Post-Civil War -- the South did everything they could to withhold equality from African Americans...the new south looked a lot like the old one

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79

Consequences of Compromise of 1877

Jim Crow Segregation The "Lost Cause" Mythology Lynching

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80

The "Lost Cause" Movement

American Civil War = not about slavery Slaves weren't mistreated, but were happy. Civil War = a noble lost cause defense of Southern culture and honor statues commissioned across the south- centered on Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Nathan Bedford Forrest

Ladies Memorial Associations: memorialized Confederate dead & veterans (heroes) Many LMAs merged in 1894 as the Daughters of the American Confederacy

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81

Jim Crow Disenfranchisement

The South wanted the disenfranchisement (prevent or take away) votes of African Americans But due to the 14th & 15th amendment = AAs right to vote cannot be taken away

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82

Three methods AA voting was made difficult in the South

Poll Tax: tax on a vote Applied to anyone whose grandfathers were not eligible to vote before the Civil War Problem: most grandfathers were slaves, AAs too poor to pay tax anyway Understanding Clauses & Literacy Tests: arbitrary; white = easy questions and blacks = impossible questions White Primary: only White candidates on the ballot so AAs didn't bother voting

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83

Louisiana voting for AAs

Pre-1877: 94% 1890: 6%

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84

Lynching

Used to terrorize AAs in the South & keep them from challenging Jim Crow Seg. Frequent punishment for any sexual interaction with a White woman or muder of white man 1880-1950 = ~5,000 lynchings in the US

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85

The Lynching of Sam Hose, 1899

Killed employer in fight over time off - claimed self defense (but he fled the scene) False rumors that he sexually assaulted the employers wife and child Mob stormed the jail and lynched Hose; bones sold as souviners An excuse to clamp down even further on the AA community

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86

The "Waco Horror" 1916

Jesse Washington, 17-year-old: murdered Elizabeth Fryer (white) & rumors of rape Lynching pre-planned (although illegal) 15,000 traveled to watch Guilty verdict - Washington lynched outside Waco City Hall

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87

1823 Monroe Doctrine

America opposed European colonization in the Western Hemisphere

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88

American Exceptionalism

1823 John Winthrop's 1630 Sermon - "City upon a Hill" US was a Christian Nation on God's Chosen Path US is better than everyone & had a sacred duty to be the best

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89

Manifest Destiny

1845 John O' Sullivan (Dem Admin of James K Polk) → American Christianity should spread (and dominate) across the land Favored Manifest Destiny to justify expansion and slavery 1845 Republic of Texas annexed (slavery reintroduced) 1846 Oregon annexed Manifest Destiny for Protestant Whites only

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90

Mexican-American War 1846

Territory between Mexico & American disputed Polk offered to buy territory from MX for a pitiful price Mex Pres. Santa Anna sent guards to border to protect MX Polk sent his men too, hoping MX would fire so they could invade and take the territory by force That's exactly what happened → ensue the Mexican-American War War supported by those wanting expansion MX not annexed because of the Catholic population & non-White race Treaty of Guadelpue Hidalgo: Polk gets CA, NV, NM, AZ, CO, OK, KS, WY

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91

William McKinley

1866 → William McKinley wins Presidency (Republican) Believer in trade, commerce, Big Business; expansion will boost trade/business

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92

McKinley Expansion - Hawaii

1840s, settlers arrived (Manifest Destiny) Hawaiian Monarchy overthrown with "Bayonet Constitution" - replaced with president; only whites could vote 1893 Republic of Hawaii 1897 McKinley annexes Hawaii for trade resources

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93

McKinley Expansion - China

European powers competing for China Trade US Open Door Policy: all powers should be allowed to trade with China Boxer Rebellion: McKinley sends troops to China to fight Boxers (Chinese movement resisting encroachment of outsiders and foreign business)

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94

Origins of the Spanish-American War 1898

Cuban War of Independence Yellow Journalism USS Maine explosion The De Lome Letter

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95

Cuban War of Independence

Cubans fighting Spanish occupation Spanish General Valeriano Wylar sent to fight Cuban rebels → brutal + concentration camps Spanish actions in Cuba violated the Monroe Doctrine BUT the American military was tiny...

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96

Yellow Journalism

Media competition between William Randolph Heart's New York Journal & Joseph Pulitzer's New York World Sensational headlines about Spanish atrocities & called for war with Spain

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97

USS Maine Explosion

USS Maine sent to Havana: explosion kills 261 sailors Yellow Journalism blamed Spain → 1974, discovered it was an accident

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98

The De Lome Letter

Spanish Ambassador called McKinley "Weak" McKinley declares war on Spain

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99

Fighting the Spanish-American War

McKinley needed an army very quickly - called for 249k volunteers He hoped the war would unite the North & South after the Civil War

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100

Smoked Yankees

AAs volunteered hoping to gain equality → caused tension in the South

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