Module 3 Microbial Metabolism

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What is energy?

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Biology

65 Terms

1

What is energy?

the capacity to do work

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2

Energy currency is

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)

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3

3 types of cellular work

chemical, mechanical, and transport work

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4

Ultimate source of all biological energy is _______________ ______________ through __________________________

Visible, Light, Photosynthesis

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5

Complex molecules made by photosynthesis serve as

carbon sources for chemoheterotrophs

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6

Major energy currency in living cell is ATP (True/False)

True

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7

first law of thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Total energy in the universe remains constant

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8

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Physical and chemical processes proceed in such a way that the disorder of the universe increases to the maximum possible level.

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9

What is the degree of disorder?

Entropy

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10

How is free energy change calculated?

G = H - T * S

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11

What does the G stand for in the equation G = H - T * S?

the change in free energy

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12

What does the H stand for in the equation G = H - T * S?

the change in enthalpy

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13

What does the T stand for in the equation G = H - T * S?

the temperature in degrees Kelvin (*C +273)

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14

What does the S stand for in the equation G = H - T * S?

the change in entropy

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15

Free energy change (G) is the amount of energy in a system that is unavailable to do work (True/False)

False (*available to do work)

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16

What is standard energy?

the change in free energy under standard conditions of concentration ,pH, pressure, and temperature.

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17

Negative G* indicates

exergonic reaction

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18

Positive G* indicates

endergonic reaction

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19

______________ ____________ removed by hydrolysis yields large -G*

Terminal Phosphate

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20

the addition of a phosphate group to a chemical compound

Phosphorylation

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21

generation of ATP by the transfer of a high energy phosphate to ADP

Substrate-level phosphorylation-

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22

The synthesis of ATP coupled with electron transport

Oxidative phosphorylation-

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23

The production of ATP in a series of redox reactions

Photophosphorylation

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24

ATP has high phosphate group transfer potential (True/False)

True

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25

_____________________ breakdown of ATP is frequently coupled with ______________________ synthesis reactions

Exergonic, Endergonic

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26

Metabolic-energy-trapping processes are used to

catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP + Pi

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27

The four inhibitors of enzymes

Competitive, Non-competitive, Allosteric, Feedback inhibition

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28

Competitive

fills the active site and prevents the interaction of the substrate

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29

Non-competitive

does not compete with the active site of the substrate

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30

Allosteric

when the inhibitor binds to another site other than the substrate binding site

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31

Feedback Inhibition

regulation by the end product of the reaction

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32

factors influencing enzymatic activity (

temperature, pH, substrate concentration

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33

Oxidation-reduction (redox)

a couple reaction in which one substance is oxidized and one is reduced

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34

Electron Carriers

transfer electrons from a reductant to an acceptor with a greater, more positive reduction potential

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35

A few electron carriers

NAD+, NADP+, Flavoproteins, Coenzymes, Cytochromes

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36

Glycolysis

oxidation of glucose into pyruvic acid (net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH) Kreb cycle-oxidation of acetyl to CO2 to gain 2 ATP,6 NADH, 2 FADH2

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37

Electron transport system

ADH and FADH2are oxidized; oxidation-reduction reactions results in the generation of ATP.

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38

ATP total in Carbohydrate catabolism

36-38

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39

Anaerobic respiration

fermentation (without the use of oxygen)

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40

Aerobic respiration

requires oxygen (final acceptor)

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41

uses a series of electron carriers to transport electrons from NADH and FADH2,in a series of redox reactions, to a terminal electron acceptor (O2)

Mitochondrial electron transport chain

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42

extensively branched with several terminal oxidases, may be composed of different electron carriers, may be shorter than the mitochondrial electron transport chains; located in the plasma membrane

Bacterial electron transport chain

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43

Chemiosmotive hypothesis of oxidative phosphorylation postulates that

a proton gradient is formed with the above energy

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44

NADH is not usually oxidized by the ________________ _____________ ____________ in the absence of molecular oxygen

electron transport chain

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45

NADH must be ______________ to replenish the supply of NAD+ for use in the catalysis of glucose

oxidized

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46

reactions that regenerate NAD+ from NADH in the absence of O2

Fermentations

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47

Types of Fermentations

Alcoholic(ethanol and CO2) Lactic acid(Lactic acid~ Homolactic/Heterolactic Fermenters) Formic acid (either mixed acids orbutanediol)

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48

Common energy sources

Triglycerides

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49

What is catalyzed by the beta-oxidation pathway to acetyl-CoA, NADH, and FADH2?

Fatty Acids

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50

What may enter the Citric Acid Cycle?

Acetyl-CoA

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51

What may enter the electron transport chain

NADH and FADH2

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52

Amino acids are degraded by proteases to Proteins (True/False)

False (Proteins are degraded by proteases to amino acids)

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53

The NH2 group is removed by

deamination or transamination

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54

The resulting organic acids are converted to

pyruvate, acetyl-CoA, or a Krebs Cycle intermediate

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55

Amino acid synthesis requires the attachment of an

amino group to a carbon skeleton

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56

Carbon skeletons are ________________ from acetyl-CoA, TCA cycle intermediates, glycolytic intermediates, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates

Synthesized

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57

Replenish Citric Acid cycle intermediatesso that biosynthesis can occur. Are not limited to autotrophic organisms

Anaplerotic Reactions

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58

use CO2 only to maintain metabolic balance and to replace Krebs cycle intermediates

Heterotrophic organisms

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59

Purines, pyrimidines, and nucleotides important because they are used in

ATP, several cofactor, RNA, and DNA synthesis

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60

Purine biosynthesis is very complex (True/False)

True

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61

uses aspartic acid and carbamoyl phosphate to form the initial pyrimidine product

Pyrimidine biosynthesis

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62

Pyrimidines and purines are joined with

pentose sugars to form nucleoside

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63

Phosphorylation of the nucleoside forms the nucleotide (True/False)

True

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64

very vulnerable to disruption by antimicrobial agents, including antibiotics such as beta-lactam ring containing antibiotics ; Complex 8-stage process

Peptidoglycan synthesis

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65

What is able to weaken the cell wall and can cause lysis

Inhibition of any step in the process of peptidoglycan synthesis

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