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Biotic factors

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61 Terms

1

Biotic factors

food/prey, plants, bacteria, animals, disease

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2

Abiotic Factors

Temperature, oxygen, sunlight, humidity, soil

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3

Mutualism

both organisms benefit

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4

Parasitism

both organisms benefit (bacteria in human digestive system)

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5

Commensalism

one organism benefits, the other is not harmed (barnacles on whale)

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6

The clever Honey-Finder birds lead humans to beehives so that human hands will open the dangerous beehive and expose the precious honeycomb for the bird access

Commensalism

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7

Tapeworms are segmented flatworms that attach themselves to the insides of the intestines of animals such as cows, pigs, and humans. They get food by eating the host's partly digested food.

Parasitism

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8

Mistletoe attaches to a tree and sends out roots that penetrate the tree and feeds off of some of the tree's nutrients and minerals.

Parasitism

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9

Clownfish dwell among the tentacles of tropical sea anemones. The territorial fish protects the anemone from anemone-eating fish, and in turn the stinging tentacles of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators (a special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles).

Mutualism

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10

A smaller tree in the rainforest receives less sunlight from an adjacent tree that is larger than it. Both of the trees need this sunlight in order to survive, reproduce and grow.

Competition

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11

How do key stone species play a crucial role in the ecosystem?

They maintains a balance in the ecosystem

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12

What are some examples of key stone species

Otters, American Alligators, Owls, Wolves, etc.

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13

What is the competitive exclusion principle?

No 2 species can occupy the same niche (role) in an ecosystems, so only 1 will survive

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14

What is the difference between habitat and niche? Use examples to explain.

A habitat is the place where an organism lives while a niche is that organism's role within that environment. For example, rabbits, and squirrels may live in the same habitat, but they have different niche’s because rabbits eat grass and squirrels eat acorns.

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15

How can group behavior help increase the survival of a species?

  1. Group behavior can help increase a species’ survival rate because it makes it more difficult to catch them.

  2. Foraging is improved since there are more animals, more food can be found.

  3. There is also enhanced reproduction and nurturement for the young

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16

What makes an area biodiverse?

When there is a variety of different organisms each with their own unique niche that help stabilizes the ecosystem

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17

What are limiting factors?

Factors that affect the growth/decline of a population (cause a population to change)

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18

What are some examples of Density Dependent Limiting Factors?

Parasites, diseases, predation, and competition

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19

What are some examples of Density Independent Limiting Factors?

Natural disasters (tornado or hurricane), weather (thunderstorm)

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20
<p>What type of curve and graph is this?</p>

What type of curve and graph is this?

S curve, Logistic

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21
<p>What type of curve and graph is this?</p>

What type of curve and graph is this?

J curve, exponential

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22

Do logistic or exponential lines reach carrying capacity?

Logistic

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23

Does an ecosystem with an exponential population line have limiting factors?

No, there are unlimited resources

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24

Does an ecosystem with an logistic population line have limiting factors?

Yes, there are limited resources

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25

What is the ecosystem hierarchy?

Organism —> Population —> Community —> Ecosystem —> Biome —> Biosphere

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26

Describe the 4 spheres of Earth

Hydrosphere - All the water parts of the planet, water on and under the ground and in the air

Geosphere - The solid part of the Earth, including the rocks, minerals, and landforms

Biosphere - Land with biotic and abiotic factors

Atmosphere - The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth

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27

How does photosynthesis and cellular respiration connects the 4 spheres of the Earth?

Plants in the biosphere receives sunlight and gases from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. (not finished)

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28
<p>What are the producers of this food web?</p>

What are the producers of this food web?

The tree, plant, and grass

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29
<p>What are the primary consumers in this food web?</p>

What are the primary consumers in this food web?

Rabbits, Grasshoppers, bees, , deer

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30
<p>What are the secondary consumers in this food web?</p>

What are the secondary consumers in this food web?

The birds, mouse, hawk, and lion

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31
<p>What are the tertiary consumers in this food web?</p>

What are the tertiary consumers in this food web?

The snake and hawk

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32

What would happen to the ecosystem if insects were removed from the food web?

The population of birds, amphibians, and other that organisms feed on insects would decrease, after losing a vital source of food. That would then cause a domino effect on the secondary consumers and so on.

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33

Name an herbivore

Rabbit, deer

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34

Name an omnivore

Birds, mice, bears

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35

Name a carnivore

Wolf, lion

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36

Who has the most energy in this pyramid:

Oak bark —> Rabbit —> Wolf —> Bear

(Name the level not the organism)

The producer

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37

Who has the least energy in this pyramid:

Oak bark —> Rabbit —> Wolf —> Bear

(Name the level not the organism)

The Tertiary consumer

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38

Which organism has the highest biomass in this pyramid:

Oak bark —> Rabbit —> Wolf —> Bear

Oak bark

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39

Which organism has the lowest biomass in this pyramid:

Oak bark —> Rabbit —> Wolf —> Bear

Bear

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40

What happens to energy as it moves up the food chain/web?

It decreases down to the 10% of the original number at each level, 1000% —> 100% —> 10%

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41

What is the ultimate source of energy for this food web?

Oak bark —> Rabbit —> Wolf —> Bear

Oak bark

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42

What is the ultimate source of energy period?

the Sun

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43

What role does bacteria and fungi play in an ecosystem?

They break down dead/decaying organisms which adds nutrients to the soil, aka detritivores

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44

What processes add carbon dioxide into the atmosphere?

Respiration, fossil fuel combustion, and decomposition

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45

Which human activity currently contributes the most CO₂ into the atmosphere?

Burning fossil fuels

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46

What process removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?

photosynthesis

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47

How does atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) get converted to usable forms?

Nitrogen fixation

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48

Which cycle does not have an atmospheric component?

Phosphorus cycle

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49

What is the cause of all environmental problems?

Human population

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50

What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?

Primary - only bare rock is left, soil must be made from lichen & moss, comes from glacier recession, soil erosion, and lava flow

Secondary - Occurs faster because there is already soil, begins with shrubs & grass, comes form forest fire, floods, and polluted streams

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51

How do nonrenewable fuels differ from renewable?

Renewable - unlimited, wind/sun

Nonrenewable - Limited, oil/soil/coal

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52

Greenhouse Gasses

CO₂ , O₃ , CH₄ , SO₂ , CFCs , H₂O (water) vapor

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53

which greenhouse gas is the most concerning?

CO₂

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54

How does the tropospheric ozone differ from the stratospheric?

tropospheric - where we live, smog, result of manmade emissions, dirty

stratospheric - formed naturally, O₃ filters UV, must be protected, the “good” one

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55

What greenhouse gas was believed to be responsible for breaking down the stratospheric ozone & its production was eventually phased out?

CFC’s (Chlorofluorocarbons)

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56

What impact has the use of pesticides in agriculture had on biodiversity?

Causes a decline in species diversity, short-term toxic effects on directly-exposed organisms, and long-term effects can result from changes to habitats and the food chain

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57

What is biomagnification?

the rise or increase in the contaminated substances caused by the intoxicating environment

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58

Explain ocean acidification and the effect it has on marine organisms and food webs

The ocean is becoming acidic, making it difficult for organisms to survive in these waters. They effect shelled organisms the most making the shell and themselves get smaller and weaker

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59

What are invasive species and how do they effect local species and food webs?

They are non native species that increase competition between them and native species for resources (food), and they don’t have predators and can reproduce rapidly so they spread fast

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60

Point Source vs Non-Point Source

You can trace back to the cause of point sources, you cannot with non-point sources

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61

What are some consequences of climate change?

  1. Rising sea levels

  2. Loss of biodiversity

  3. Unpredictable weather events (floods & storms)

  4. Increase in diseases

  5. Global food and water shortages

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