media psych exam 3 (last one!)

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the importance of relationships as viewed by evolutionary psychologists

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the importance of relationships as viewed by evolutionary psychologists

humans are naturally social creatures so having friends is important to interact with people

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aristotle’s distinction between friends of utility, pleasure, and character

friends of utility: people who are friends with each other because of a mutual benefit, not affection

friends of pleasure: people who bond over a mutual interest

friends of character: friends who are invaluable for self-knowledge in the sense that they know us better than we do ourselves(?)

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the three characteristics of close relationships and the categories of people we generally have close relationships with

close relationships are characterized by self-disclosure, trust, and concern for the other party. we usually have close relationships with parents, close friends, and partners

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what determines how people feel about a relationship in social exchange theory

costs and rewards - balance determines how people feel about a relationship

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what a person’s comparison level is and what peoples’ comparison level for alternatives are

a person’s comparison level is expectations about what people expect or feel they deserve out of a relationship. peoples’ comparison level for alternatives are expectations about what people can get out of alternative relationships

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what equity theory says about relationships

people are motivates to pursue fairness or equity in their relationships, benefits proportional to the effort both people put into it

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three factors discussed in class that affect choice of friends and how proximity is related to familiarity

proximity: the more people come into contact, the more likely people come into contact, the more likely they are to become friends, and familiarity

similarity: people similar in attitudes, values, interests, backgrounds, and personalities tend to like each other

people are more likely to like people with certain personality characteristics

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the findings regarding the importance of friendship for wellbeing across the lifespan and how one’s friendship circle changes across the lifespan

friends across your lifespan are extremely important to wellbeing, shrinking friend group once career, young family needs

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looking at your cell phone when in the presence of others in a social setting

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the general trend of findings with respect to phubbing

  1. negative effect on conversational quality

  2. conversational partner less trust-worthy, empathetic, attentive and civil

  3. less interpersonal connectedness and poorer affiliate disposition

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the two characteristics in people that have been found to be related to phubbing

people who are popc (permanently online permanently connected) and fomo both positively related to phubbing behavior

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the difference between integral and incidental cellphone use during a conversational, and under which of those does the reactive/proactive use of cellphone fit

integral use is when the phone is used for part of the conversation (showing memes) and incidental use of the phone is when the phone is not part of the conversation and you’re simply using the phone.

proactive use is the specific choice to go on your phone (integral) and reactive use is the reaction which leads you to go on your phone (getting a phone call in the middle of a conversation) (incidental)

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to what extent cellphone use is more or less acceptable to conversational partners

the cellphone relevance hypothesis (uses and gratifications theory)”

  1. what is the function of the cellphone in the conversational?

  2. what are the expectations of the conversational partners regarding cellphone use?

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displacement of cellphone use by parents and why it’s concerning

parents leave their kids “on heard” and don’t spend that much time looking after them during playtime (on the playground)

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difference between a friend and a social media connection

a friend is someone you see in real life and make memories with while a social media connection is someone you exchange words with over the internet or likes

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the four friendship maintenance behavior categories

support, positivity, openness, interaction

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gender differences in prevalence of friendship maintenance behaviors in support, positivity, and openness

levels of support within relationships: f/f is greater than f/m which is greater than m/m

levels of openness within relationships: f/f and f/m are greater than m/m

levels of positivity within relationships: same with all

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the relationship between likes and comments received on fb and happiness and self-esteem in the zell and moeller fb study and in which category of friendship maintenance behaviors

support and positivity, getting more likes and comments = more happiness and self-esteem, perceiving fb community more interested in one’s good news

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the general effect on romantic self-esteem of making an online-dating profile and which of the two follow up conditions led to a higher romantic self-esteem

people’s romantic self-esteem increase if a lot of people interact with their online-dating profile (validation). the conditions are expecting cmc follow up conversations

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impression management

trying to control how people view you by creating a specific image of you online or in-person

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what people pay attention to when making an online dating profile

picture, less to bio

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what creates perceptions of a person in a dating profile

picture, conversational tone, hobbies (in descending order)

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common deceptions in online dating profiles

men exaggerate their height; women underreport their weight

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how the perception of deception influences the success of the first date

negatively predicts the success of the first date

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romances tropes in narrative media

perfect partner is cosmically predestined, love at first sight, true soulmate should know what you’re thinking and feeling without you communicating it, sex is easy and wonderful if partner is truly meant for you

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relationship maintenance behavior in addition to friendship maintenance behavior

support, positivity, interaction, openness, and building a shared identity - you as a couple, team, pair

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general findings with phubbing in romantic relationships and how they differ depending on context

negative, people want attention in a romantic relationship. distinction between contexts include dates, intimate moments, and hanging out

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ghosting and its two temporal dimensions

disappearing, avoiding, disengaging, exiting (gradual/sudden and long-term/short-term)

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how important media is as a source of information about sex for adolescents

57% of 14-16 year olds said media was a primary source of information about sex (esp tv and movies)

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approximate percentages of female and male teenagers who have viewed porn online

61% of females and 93% of males

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main term used for porn and the category distinctions in this material

porn/erotica, distinctions include sexually violent material, non-violent sexual material, degrading/nondegrading material, and non-explicit sexual material

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the term for the standard sexual material in typical hollywood

sexual innuendoes

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differences in explicitness between network tv and streaming services

cable and streaming have more explicit sexual material than movies, radios, and tv

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commonality of various levels of sexual behavior in movies and tv shows

element in over 80% of movies and tv shows

talk about sex - 68%

actual sexual behavior - 35%

intercourse depicted or strongly implied - 11%

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percentage of tv shows that mention birth control or the consequences of sex

15% of tv shows mentions birth control, abstinence, or consequences of sex

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which media is most to least conservative regarding sex

television, then radio, then recording industry

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the effect of media on attitudes towards casual sex

sex before marriage, often shortly after first meeting is pretty much the norm

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differences in the depiction of the decision to have casual sex when it comes to adolescents and adults

adolescents - whether to have sex is a difficult decision

adults - the decision is a nonissue, norm of early sexual activity, no concerns of morals or protection

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the general effects of watching soap operas on the estimates of prevalence and support for extramarital sex

viewing more soap operas led to higher estimates of % of people having affairs, divorce, abortion, and illegitimate children

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how marital sex is often portrayed in tv and movies

boring, uninteresting, or devalued

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when advertising for contraception became somewhat acceptable and commonality of it

showed up in the 90s but still quite rare

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the effect of exposure to sexually explicit material on the estimates of frequency irl of various sex acts

exposure to sexually explicit material leads to overestimation of frequency of all kinds of sexual practices

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script theory

more sexually explicit materials, higher likelihood of asking for sex acts seen in those materials

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attitudes related to exposure to media that objectify women

related to the tolerance of sexual harassment in men and sexual violence

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status of evidence for the relationship between consuming sexually explicit materials and sex crimes

dispute about positive correlation, but heavy consumption of sexually explicit material is associated with sex crimes

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effects of teens who were heavy viewers of tv with sexual content and how parental, same-sex, and opposite-sex co-viewing of this material affect early sexual behavior

teens who are heavy viewers of tv with sexual content are more likely to have sex in following year, more non-coital sexual behavior, and teen pregnancy 3 years later. parental and same-sex co-viewing lowered likelihood

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why is matters that sexting is impersonal rather than mass communication and the prevalence of sexting

sexting is private and intimate and the prevalence is between 0.9% and 60%

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the negative factors that sexting has been found to be related to

greater consumption of sexually explicit material, higher sensation seeking, poorer personal relationships, alcohol and marijuana use, bullying and victim of bullying

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percentage of people that report non-consensual forwarding of sexts


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relationship status in the context of which sexting has not been found to be related to risk-taking and other negative behavior

greater relational and sexual satisfaction when sexting occurs between committed partners

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contextual factors that can influence the effects of sexually explicit material

  1. if the material is serious or playful

  2. artistic worth and intent

  3. relationship of the sex scene to the plot

  4. who are you watching with

  5. cultural context

  6. sex in the context of romance (romantic tropes)?

  7. were you expecting sex

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three researcher’s views of sexually explicit material and why it’s important to keep in mind when reading research reports

conservative-moralist: public portrayals of sex offensive and disgusting

liberal: sexual depictions trigger fantasies, but these are not acted out

feminist: sexually explicit material is a powerful socializing agent that promotes the sexual abuse of women

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the disturbing findings in the small study on college males and the labeling of forceful intercourse

men find women more desirable and arousing when they’re terrorized by assault

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effects of consuming alcohol on evaluation of victim situation in violent sexual material

alcohol consumption decreases sensitivity to victim distress

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general characteristics of slasher movies and those findings in respect to ‘final girls’ and their sexualization

victims (females) are pursued by violent aggressors (males). only the final girls are are not seen nude or having sex

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the desensitization effects on males of watching r-rated hollywood movies everyday

over time, slasher movies became more enjoyable, less violent and offensive and less degrading to women

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how desensitization works

classical conditioning

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percentages of tv shows and movies that contain violence

65% of tv shows and 90% of movies

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number of violent acts per hour in programming for children and adults and how much violence in children’s programming is due to cartoon violence

7.9 violent acts per hour in programming aimed at children vs 4.7/hour in adult prime time programs. 50% of 10-14 year olds had seen very violent r-rated movies, 80% for african american boys

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percentages of tv crime that are murder and theft and what these percentages are irl

tv: murder, robber, kidnapping assault (90% - 25% of which are murder), theft (6%)

reality: murders are 1% of crime, theft is 65%

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non-media related factors that influence violent and the estimates of the effect of violent media on societal violence

poverty, racism, crowding, drugs, parental neglect, availability of weapons, subcultures. estimate of effects of media on societal violence is 5-15%

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typical reaction to media violence


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difference in what preschoolers and older children are afraid of

preschoolers are more scared of monsters, older children more of realistic dangers and injuries, abstract threats, behavior of character

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what may be important for parents to do during co-viewing media violence with their children

discussion during co-viewing rather than just cuddling and comforting

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the 4 factors in social cognitive theory that influence modeling


  1. be exposed to media example and pay attention

  2. encode and remember the behavior

  3. must be able to translate into own behavior

  4. must develop motivation (internal or external reward) to perform behavior

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sensitization to violence and difference from desensitization

sensitization: reacting very strongly to seeing violence resulting in less likelihood of imitation; strongest sensitization from very graphic violence that is clearly real

desensitization: classical conditioning; initially violence evokes pain, fear, and disgust but repeated exposure with relaxed, comfortable environment, negative reaction are weakened

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what type of media violence is most likely to lead to sensitization


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the findings about young males desensitizing themselves to graphic violence on purpose

male gender-role socialization: boys desensitizing themselves so that they can watch graphic violence and seem unaffected. impress peers and dates

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what are the cultivation effect of tv viewing and why this effect could become stronger with the advent of tablets and smartphones

frequent viewers of tv think the world is more dangerous and crime-ridden than infrequent viewers. viewers are all becoming more ‘frequent’

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the characteristics of a violent model that appear to cause an increase in the likelihood of imitation

attractive, respected, prestigious violent model

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how is violence in narrative visual media reinforced and how the value of violence is reinforced

reinforcement given to violent character in the context of the story, the edgy antihero. reinforcement of the value of violence as solution in interpersonal disputes

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what type of play was mentioned in class as being important for children in order for them to learn the difference between make-believe and reality

pretend play. the news and documentaries are hard for children to believe because it’s real and unstaged

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findings from the study in class in respect to prolonged exposure to media violence and empathy

empathy is negatively related to preference for violent media. prolonged exposure to media violence reduces levels of empathy in male and female adolescents

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hostile attribution bias

the tendency to interpret the ambiguous behavior of others as hostile, even when others have no such intention

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hostile perception bias

the tendency to perceive ambiguous social interactions as hostile

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hostile expectations bias

the bias to expect aggression from others in ambiguous situations that might erupt into aggressive behavior

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relationship between sensation-seeking characteristic and enjoyment of media violence and what’s found in high-sensation seeking children

sensation seeking is positively related to enjoyment of media violence. children high in sensation seeking prefer violent video games

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findings relating to the strength of modeling effects by age and gender

modeling effects increase up to ages 8-12 and decrease slowly after. boys watch more violent media and are more physically violent than girls, no evidence for stronger modeling effects

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the effects of general tv viewing at mean age 14 on aggressive acts at mean 16 or 22 in males an females with and without prior aggression

increase of aggressive acts against others in all cases

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factors in the longitudinal study that affected adult aggression 15 years later

tv violence viewing, perceived realism of tv violence, identification with aggressive female characters, and identification with aggressive male characters

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trend in media reporting on media violence effects between 1950 and 2000 and the suggested reasons for the increasing inaccuracy

media violence effects have gone from weak link, to moderate link, back to weak link. vested interests of media companies, ‘neutrality’, insufficient advocating of results by researchers

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types of video games that are consistently top sellers

violent; COD, infinite warfare, battlefield 1, GTA

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the point of mayhew mentioning the soldiers who couldn’t/wouldn’t shoot in successive wars and how that relates to video games

game players learn shooting behaviors. when violent game actions are rewarded in game, aggressive thoughts and behavior increase, and hostile emotions increase. playing video games can elicit hostile expectations. engaging in ‘active’ violent media, higher risk-taking in real life

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the effects of playing violent video games according to apa report from 2017

“the use of violent video games results in increases in overall aggression as well as increases in the individual variables pf aggressive behaviors, aggressive cognitions, aggressive aft, desensitization, physiological arousal, and decrease in empathy”

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what happened to anita sarkeesian when she set up a kickstarter to produce the videos

she was doxed, swatted, and had reputional attacks

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how anita sarkeesian’s case is different from justine sacco

sacco wrote negatively about a local gym influencer at her college who had over 100k followers in the school paper and was mobbed online

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the characteristics of deindividuation and in what situations this occurs

a state of reduced individuality, reduced self-awareness, and reduced attention to personal standards (in a group)

self-awareness causes people to act in accordance with values and beliefs; when self-awareness disappears, so do restraints

people are especially likely to deindividuated when they are aroused and anonymous and responsibility is diffused

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characteristic of a cybermob that makes deindividuation likely

people are anonymous online

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defining characteristics of cyberbullying

aggression that is intentionally and repeatedly carried out in an electronic context against a person who cannot easily defend themselves

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heated, hostile, or aggressive online arguments involving insults, name-calling, and inflammatory language

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direct, explicit forms of cyberbullying like sending threatening messages, derogatory comments through text or social media

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doxing and privacy violations

malicious sharing of private or sensitive information about an individual online, such as personal addresses, phone numbers, or financial details

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excluding individuals from online social groups, spreading rumors or gossip to undermine their social status, or intentionally isolating them from digital communities

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impersonation and identity theft

including creating fake profiles or accounts to impersonate the victim, posing misleading or harmful information about them, or stealing their digital identity to damage their reputation

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the perpetrator repeatedly contacts, monitors, or follows the victim online, causing fear, intimidation, or distress

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sexual harassment or exploitation

sexually explicit or inappropriate behavior online, such as sending unsolicited sexual messages, sharing explicit content without consent, or engaging in online sexual coercion

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mental health results from cybervictimization

5x odds of mental health issues in general

5.9x odds of psychological distress

6.1x odds of suicidal ideation

higher chances of ptsd


self harm

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prevalence of cyberbullying in middle school

cyberbullying 5-8%

cybervictims 7%

both bully and victim 4%

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prevalence of cyberbullying in high school

cybervictims 21%

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prevalence of cyberbullying in college

cyberbullying 5%

cybervictims 6%

both bully and victim 5%

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