Microbial pathogenicity

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Viral pathogenesis

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1

Viral pathogenesis

process by which viral infection leads to disease

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2

Primary replication of viral infection

virus replicates after initial host entry, determines if infection will be localized of systemic

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3

Systemic spread of viral infection

virus spread via bloodstream + CNS

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4

Secondary replication of viral infection

@ susceptible organs/tissue after systemic spread

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5

cytolytic vs non-cytolytic productive infection (virus-cell interaction)

cytolytic - hot cell is permissive non-cytolytic - leads to persistent infection

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6

abortive/non-productive infection

virus doesn't complete replication cycle, cells non-permissive

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7

Direct cell damage and death from viral infection may result from

cell energy diversion, shutoff of cell synthesis, competition of viral mRNA for ribosomes or for viral promoters + transcriptional enhancers

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8

Indirect cell damage from viral infection can result from

viral genome integration, intro of mutations in host, inflammation, host immune response

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9

What happens if virus enters cell but not produced/virus within cell as DNA

either cell remains normal or malignant transformation

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10

Viral latency

virus is present in the form of its genome only and there is little (mRNA, not at protein level) or no expression of viral genes, common in DNA viruses

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11

Viral persistence

virus replicates continuously in the body at a very low level (ex HIV)

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12

Latent infection

patient recovers from initial infection but virus persists + infection may recur

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13

Chronic infection

virus detectable for long time

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14

Slow virus infection

prolonged period bw initial infection + appearance of disease (ex prions)

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15

Stages of viral infection

incubation prodromal specific-illness recovery

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16

specific receptors, genetic constitution, age and physio states, and nutritional factors are all

Host factors related to virus infection

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17

attenuated viruse

virus that lost virulence (ability to cause disease)

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18

the signs and symptoms of a viral disease result from:

cell killing (from viral replication), loss of fnx cell damage (from immune response)

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19

cellular immunity plays the major role in _____________ whereas humoral immunity protects against ________

clearing virus infection reinfection

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20

horizontal transmittion

person to person, direct (secretions), indirect (contaminated food), blood

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21

vertical transmission

perinatal, transplacental, @ delivery or during breastfeeding

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22

Role of macrophages in systematic infections

they can either inactivate virus OR virus multiplies inside macrophage (HIV)

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23

Tropism

range of host cells that can be infected by virus

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24

Adherence/attachment

bacteria binds to surface of target cell

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25

Dissemination/invasion

bacteria spreads from origin site to whole organism

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26

Etiologic agent

the microorganism that causes the disease

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27

Inapparent infection

infection in host w/o symptoms/signs, fxn not affected, mobilized immune system

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28

Endogenous vs exogenous infection

endo - infectious agent already in body + was dormant exo - bacteria outside body, found host

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29

Bacterial infection pathogenesis

incubation prodromal acute (replication) convalescence

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30

Bacteria are pathogenic by

adherence to substrate, invasion, toxigenesis and ability to evade immune response

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31

Infectious process of bacteria

  1. Entry

  2. Adherence

  3. Bacterial multiplication

  4. Dissemination

  5. Elimination

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32

Mechanisms of defense of respiratory tract

mucus and cilia (mechanically), IgA, macrophages and phagocytes in deep mucosal layer

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33

Mechanisms of defense of GI tract

  • gastric acid + intestinal pH

  • proteolytic enzymes

  • biliary salts

  • mucus rich in IgA

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34

Mechanisms of defense of genito-urinary tract

cervical mucus and vaginal pH

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35

Mechanisms of defense of skin/mucosa

lipolysis of sebum (acidic)

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36

Adherence step of infectious process of bacteria

adherence to epithelial cells, uses binding molecules, specific receptors and electric charge on cell surface

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37

Bacteremia vs septicemia

bacteremia= bacteria present in the blood

septicimia= bacteria GROWING in the blood

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38

the virulence factors that condition a bacterial strain virulence are

rate of multiplication and capacity of invasion

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39

pili (somatic virulence factor)

adhesion fimbria

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40

lectins (somatic virulence factor)

proteins that bind carbs

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41

ligands (somatic virulence factor)

molecules that make specific binds w/ substrate

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42

slime (somatic virulence factor)

substance around bacteria, mediates its non-specific attachment

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43

capsule (somatic virulence factor)

role in antiphagocytosis and sometimes adherence

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44

Vi surface antigen are for (somatic virulence factor)

gram - rods

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45

coagulase (soluble virulence factor)

free or bound, in S.aureus

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46

leucocidin (soluble virulence factor)

made by S.aureus after phagocytosed

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47

catalse (soluble virulence factor)

inactivates free O2 radicals

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48

Bacteria can produce 2 kinds of toxins:

proteic/exotoxins and lipopolysaccharidic/endotoxic

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49

cytotoxic exotoxins act on

eukaryotic cell wall

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50

AB toxins

type 3 - interfere w/ internal cell fxn a - active b - binding

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51

what detach easily, have high molecular weight proteins, thermosensitive, antigens, decomposed by proteolytic enzymes?

exotoxins AB

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52

_________ appear following disease or vaccine and can be transformed into _________

antitoxins, anatoxins

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53

Endotoxins are produced by and reside in

gram - bacteria, ext cell wall

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54

Endotoxins cannot be

transformed in anatoxins or decomposed by proteolytic enzymes

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55

Which type of bacterial toxin is specific?

exotoxin

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56

Endotoxins act by

stimulating cytokine release from macrophages

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