Chapter 9 Terms APUSH

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Dorr Rebellion

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1

Dorr Rebellion

The response by Thomas W. D. of Rhode Island to conservative legislature's blocking of all efforts to reform voting regulations even when his "People's Party" drafted a constitution overwhelmingly approved by popular vote; both the old Rhode Island government and his government claimed legitimacy, and his attempt to capture the state arsenal failed, and although foiled, the rebellion helped pressure the old government to draft a new constitution expanding suffrage.

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2

Bucktails

Martin Van Buren led this dissident political faction in New York, who believed that only a party based in the populace could insure democracy.

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3

Whigs

A political party that had no stand on slavery, and was elected because people did not want to rock the boat and have war. It was formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements.

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4

Spoil System

The right of elected officials to appoint their followers to public office, established by the Jackson administration.

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5

Webster-Hayne Debate

An argument between Daniel W. and Robert H., about the issue states' rights versus national power. Daniel said that Robert was a challenge to the integrity of the Union. Robert responded with a defense of the theory of nullification. Daniel then spent two full afternoons delivering what became known as his "Second Reply to Robert." He concluded with the ringing appeal: "Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable."

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6

Black Hawk War

A war in Illinois between an alliance of Sauk and Fox Indians against white settlers in 1831-1832 in an effort to overturn what the Indians considered an illegal treaty ceding tribal lands in that state to the United States. This war was notable for the viciousness of the white military efforts.

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7

National Party Convention

Where party politicians and voters would gather in a large meeting hall to nominate the party's candidates.

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8

Osceola and Seminole Resistance

This man led this violent revolt against the Indian Removal Act in Florida.

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9

Nullification Doctrine

States that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress.

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10

Peggy O'Neale Affair

Secretary of War Eaton had married pretty Peggy, whose name was tainted; she was snubbed by the ladies of Jackson's official family, mostly by Vice President Calhoun's wife. Jackson, whose wife had been victimized as well, took Peggy's side and was very nice to her- Jackson tried to force the social acceptance of Peggy Eaton.

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11

Roger Taney

He was Chief Justice for the Dred Scott case. A decision was made on March 6, 1857. He ruled against Dred Scott. Scott was suing for freedom because of his long residence in free territory. He was denied freedom because he was property and his owner could take him into any territory and legally hold him as a slave. This court ruling was major cause in starting the Civil War.

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12

Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge

Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles Company protested when the Warren Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge.

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13

Anti-Masons

A 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party.

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14

Great Triumvirate

Refers to the three statesmen who dominated the United States Senate in the 1830s and 1840s: Henry Clay of Kentucky, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. All three were extremely active in politics, had been appointed as Secretary of State in their careers, and had served in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Each was a distinguished orator and debater.

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15

Specie circular

This was issued by President Jackson in 1836, and was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.

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16

Independent Treasury Act

President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vaults and do business entirely in hard money rather than keep them in deposits within shaky banks.

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17

Removal Act 1830

Congress passed this, which provided for the resettlement of all 100,000 Native Americans, including all of the Five Civilized Tribes, east of the Mississippi to a newly defined Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma.

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18

Penny Press

Newspapers that, because of technological innovations in printing, were able to drop their price to one cent, therefore making papers affordable to working and middle classes and enabled newspapers to become a genuine mass medium.

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19

Panic of 1837

When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. The Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.

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20

John Tyler

He was elected Vice President with William Henry Harrison and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died.

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21

Trail of Tears

When about 1,000 Cherokee Indians fled to North Carolina, the federal government provided them with a small reservation in the Smokey Mountains that survives today. But most of the rest made a long, forced trek to "Indian territory," later known as Oklahoma, beginning in the winter of 1838. Thousands, perhaps a quarter or more of the emigres, perished before reaching their unwanted destination. In the harsh new reservations, the survivors remembered the journey as this.

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22

Caroline

This American steamboat was being used by Canadian rebels when it was attacked by the government of Canada in late 1837 in American waters. In 1842 Daniel Webster asked for an apology from British government. The event heightened tensions between the United States and Britain, but this tension was soon eased.

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23

William Henry Harrison

An American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

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24

Aroostook War

A war between lumberjacks from the U.S. and Canada over disputed territory between Maine and New Brunswick.

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25

Bank War

Jackson begins taking out funds and putting them into pet banks, successfully "killing" the National Bank; leads to fluctuation in economy and eventual panic; Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. He vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew government's money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks".

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26

Creole

American ship captured by a group of rebelling Virginia slaves. The slaves successfully sought asylum in the Bahamas, raising fears among Southern planters that the British West Indies would become a safe haven for runaway slaves.

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27

Martin Van Buren

A man who led a dissident political faction in New York (known as the "Bucktails" or the "Albany Regency"). In the years after the War of 1812 ended this group began to challenge the established political elite led by the aristocratic governor, Clinton. They argued that only an institutionalized party, based on populace, could ensure genuine democracy.

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28

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

1842, it was a treaty resolving the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border. It also established the details of the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, reaffirmed the location of the border in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains, called for a final end to the slave trade on the high sea(to be enforced by both signatories), and agreed on terms for shared use of the Great Lakes

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29

Treaty of Wang Hya

This extended the US trade in China to equal that of Great Britian. China agreed to open Chinese ports for the US.

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