APUSH Chapter 3

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Washington Presidency


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Religious Studies


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105 Terms

Washington Presidency

He shaped the role: set boundaries Elected unanimously twice Cabinet system: A small team of advisors to aid his decisions 2 terms

What did Washington do?


Washington's Cabinet

Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War: Henry Knox Attorney General: Edmund Randolph VP: John Adams

Hamilton's Vision

Strong central gov Becoming an Industrial nation to help globalize

Hamilton Supporters

Banks, businesses, and wealthy people

Jefferson's Vision

Thinks that central gov is tyranny waiting to happen STATES RIGHTS> federal gov Opposed Hamilton in every way Vision: Society of small farmers

Political Parties

Federalists: 1st organized party Democratic-Republicans

Hamilton: Constitutional Considerations

Loose Interpretation Focus on what is permitted rather than restricted

Jefferson: Constitutional Considerations

Strict Interpretation Focus on what is restricted rather than permitted

Necessary and Proper Clause

What Hamilton used for justifying loose interpretation

Hamilton's Financial Plan

Objective 1: Strengthen National Credit-provides unity Objective 2: Raise Revenue to pay Revolutionary War debts Objective 3: Proposed BANK OF US

How does Hamilton raise revenue?

  1. Develop a national currency

  2. Put tariffs on foreign items

Why does Hamilton want to pay back the Revolutionary War dept?

He says that it sets the precedent for other nations to trust them: Helps them engage in trade

Washington Abroad

  1. Proclamation of Neutrality(1793)

  2. Jay's Treaty (1794)

  3. Pinckney's Treaty(1795)

Proclamation of Neutrality: Hamilton

Hamilton said that they should not support the French because they only agreed to help the old French government in the war, not the revolution. Federalists support him

Proclamation of Neutrality: Jefferson

He thinks that we should repay them for helping the U.S; He's sympathetic Gets support from the Democratic Republicans

Jay’s Treaty

Between America and Britain Tanked his reputation because it’s an agreement with Britain

Jay’s Treaty causes: Britain

Impressed U.S sailors Occupied forts on U.S territory

Jay’s Treaty Causes: America

Harassed former Loyalists Didn’t pay back war debts

Pinckney’s Treaty Cause

Spain was scared of the U.S and Britain treaty

Pinckney’s Treaty Effect

Spain gave America everything they wanted ALLOWED THEM TO TAKE GOODS DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

Whiskey Rebellion

Excise tax angers farmers: makes them tar and feather tax collectors Washington sends army to Massachusetts; no deaths

Whiskey Rebellion Impact

Teaches people that they have the right to protest, not revolt. If they want to change a law, they can vote. Tax sticked around

Washington's Farewell

Printed on newspaper; Warned the nation of 3 problems

  1. Political parties-Warned against them: said it was disunity

  2. Sectionalism-Avoids being together

  3. Foreign Entanglement: Doesn't like permanent alliances

John Adams

Doesn't get same support as Washington; made fun of for being bald and short XYZ Affair Trio of Acts

  1. Alien 2.Sedition 3.Naturalization

XYZ Affair

France impressing U.S vessels

Trio of Acts

  1. Alien-deport or detain any “alien” deemed dangerous 2.Sedition-limit criticism of president and congress 3.Naturalization-14 years for alien to become citizen

Jefferson Strikes back

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions -The nullification omen

Election of 1800

Jefferson (DR), Burr (DR), Adams (F) Whispering Campaign- Rumors spread to chip away at each candidate's reputation Tie decided by House of Reps. -People listened to what Hamilton said: He endorsed Jefferson

Revolution of 1800

Smooth transfer of power to Jefferson First party transfer Repeal, Replace, Reduce, Restraint


Excise taxes, especially on whiskey


Laws that he didn't like; 5 years instead of 14 to become a citizen from an immigrant


Reduce size of the military to save money


Jefferson keeps most of the laws made by Adams and Washington UPHOLDS NEUTRALITY

Louisiana Purchase

France wants out of America Jefferson spends 15 million on all of French America Adds 1/3 of U.S

Jefferson's dilemma

Nothing in the Constitution said he could buy land Follows loose interpretation to justify himself

Lewis and Clark

Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) Goals: science, commercial, and diplomatic Diplomatic: Tells Lewis and Clark to establish good relationships Commercial: Money

Jefferson's 2nd Term

Easy win in 1804 Napoleonic Wars -More ocean trouble Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (1807) -Caused Embargo Act of 1807

Embargo Act of 1807

A trade ban on ALL FOREIGN GOODS Raises American production Reminds people that America is a young nation FULLY ISOLATED THE US

The Marshall Court

Adams’ “Midnight judges” -Dem-Reps cry foul Chief Justice John Marshall “Washington of the Supreme Court” LAST THING FEDERALISTS DO

James Madison

Jefferson’s pick in 1808 election Starts War Nonintercourse Act(1809) Macon’s Bill #2

Nonintercourse Act of 1809

Said that the U.S would not trade with or interfere in Napoleons wars betweeen Britain and France

Macon’s Bill No. 2

U.S said that they would lift embargo on either Britain or France depending on who stopped impressing U.S Vessels

Macon’s Bill No.2: Napoleon

Says that he will stop impressing vessels- U.S lifts embargo

Didn’t stop impressing vessels- Backfired on U.S.

Madison War Causes

Impressment National honor Native Americans Desire for Canada War Hawks

Madison War Effects

Treaty of Ghent Surging nationalism Int. respect too Rise in Industry POINTLESS WAR

Treaty of Ghent

Basically restored the territory of U.S and Canada to what it was before. The status quo stays the same Leads to demilitarization of Great Lakes

international respect

Other countries respected them; Trade grew as a result

Federalist Fallout

Hartford Convention: Radical Federalists call for succession Federalism seen as unpatriotic Don’t win elextions anymore