Unit 3: Biomolecules

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

main energy source that cells use for most of their work

<p>main energy source that cells use for most of their work</p>
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Amino acid

monomer that makes up proteins

<p>monomer that makes up proteins</p>
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Denaturation

loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factors

<p>loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factors</p>
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

molecule responsible for inheritance. Nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose

<p>molecule responsible for inheritance. Nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose</p>
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Nucleic acid

a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.

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Nucleotide

building block (monomer) of nucleic acid polymers

<p>building block (monomer) of nucleic acid polymers</p>
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Polypeptide

chain of linked amino acids

<p>chain of linked amino acids</p>
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Protein

polymer constructed from a set of 20 amino acid monomers

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

nucleic acid containing sugar ribose

<p>nucleic acid containing sugar ribose</p>
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Carbohydrate

organic compound made of sugar molecules

<p>organic compound made of sugar molecules</p>
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Cellulose

polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls

<p>polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls</p>
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Disaccharide

sugar with two monosaccharides

<p>sugar with two monosaccharides</p>
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Fat

organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids

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Glycogen

polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers

<p>polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers</p>
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Hydrophilic

attracts water molecules

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Hydrophobic

avoids water molecules

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Inorganic molecule

non-carbon based molecule

<p>non-carbon based molecule</p>
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Lipid

one of a class of water avoiding compounds

<p>one of a class of water avoiding compounds</p>
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Monomer

small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule

<p>small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule</p>
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Monosaccharide

sugar containing one sugar unit

<p>sugar containing one sugar unit</p>
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Organic molecule

carbon based molecule

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Polymer

long chain of small molecular units

<p>long chain of small molecular units</p>
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Polysaccharide

long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers

<p>long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers</p>
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Saturated fat

fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms

<p>fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms</p>
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Starch

polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers

<p>polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers</p>
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Steroid

lipid molecule with four fused rings

<p>lipid molecule with four fused rings</p>
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Unsaturated fat

fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one of more of its fatty acid chains

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