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Massachusetts Bay Colony

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Massachusetts Bay Colony

Established in 1629 by the Puritans. Governor John Winthrop called it a "city upon a hill." Established for religious purposes.

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Puritans

Religious dissidents who traveled to the New World to develop a purer church than the Church of England.

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3

Indentured Servents

Exchanged work for passage to the New World.

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4

London Company

Permitted by King James I to establish Jamestown for economic reasons.

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5

Powhatan Confederacy

Native American alliance who had early conflict with the Jamestown settlers. Eventually, they developed a trade alliance and provided the colonists with corn. Pocahontas married John Rolfe to ensure future peace.

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6

House of Burgesses

Created in 1619 by the Virginia colony. First representative government in any British colony.

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7

William Bradford

Leader of the Seperatist pilgrims who landed on Plymouth Rock.

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8

Mayflower Compact

  1. Provided the pilgrims with a representative government once they reached land.

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9

Roger Williams

Preached separation of church and state, and argued that Mass. Bay Colony was too similar to the Church of England. He was exiled for spreading dissent and went to Rhode Island.

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10

Thomas Hooker/John Davenport

Founded the colony of Connecticut. Hooker had been forced out of Mass. Bay Colony.

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11

Anne Hutchinson

Exiled from Mass. Bay Colony for claiming personal revelations with God. Established Portsmouth.

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12

George Calvert

Settled Maryland in 1632 as a refuge for English Catholics.

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13

Mercantilism

Economic theory: state must be as self-sufficient as possible, export more than input, government regulation of commerce, colonies, tariffs, monopolies.

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14

Navigation Acts

Passed in 1660. Forced colonies to trade solely with Great Britain, increased tensions.

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15

Triangular Trade Route

Slaves taken from Africa and brought to the colonies, raw materials from colonies went to Britain, finished products sold back to the colonies.

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16

Middle Passage

African slave route in which many died from horrible conditions.

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17

Salem Witch Trials

Hysteria in Salem, Mass. over alleged witches. Many executed on false claims.

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18

Salutary Neglect

British policy of relaxing enforcement of trade regulations in the colonies.

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19

Dominion of New England

Revoked the charters of many colonies and placed control under Edmund Andros, the governor.

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20

Bacon's Rebellion

Nathaniel Bacon and a group of landowners opposed Sir Berkeley's authority and burned Jamestown to the ground. Failed, but limited royal governor's power and increased the slave trade.

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21

Stono Rebellion

Occurred in Charleston, South Carolina. Slaves took up arms and killed plantation owners, but were quickly subdued. Results: slaves treated even more harshly.

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22

Colonial Assemblies

Rose in the early 1700s. Increased colonial independence, scaring the British.

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23

Molasses Act

Increased British control on colonial goods.

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24

First Great Awakening

Religious revival in the colonies in 1720-1740. Ministers preached horrible images of sinners burning in hell and gained popularity off of fear. Famous among them were Jonathon Edwards and George Whitefield.

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25

French and Indian War

Conflict between French with Indian allies and the British with colonial support. Decreased French influence in colonies.

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26

Stamp Act

Enacted a tax on all paper products exported from the colonies. Created strong tension and was repealed.

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27

Townshend Acts

British act forced colonies to pay taxes on most goods from England. Fiercely resisted and repealed in 1770.

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28

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fought into an agitated colonial crowd, killing five people. Incited enormous tensions.

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29

Sons of Liberty

Radical group that resisted British policy in Boston in 1760-1770. Organized the Boston Tea Party.

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30

Committees of Correspondence

Started in Mass. and spread. Circulated grievances against the British and united the colonies.

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31

First Continental Congress

Met in Philadelphia in 1774. Colonists vowed to resist British efforts to tax them further without proper representation.

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32

Albany Congress

Met in 1754 to coordinate policies concerning future western expansion and dealings with Native Americans.

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33

Edward Braddock

British general sent to defeat the French at Fort Duquesne. He was defeated and killed, which then signaled the start of the French and Indian War.

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34

William Pitt

British general put in charge of the war. He promised reimbursement for colonial support.

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35

George Grenville

British prime minister who taxed the colonies to relieve massive British debt.

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36

Currency Act of 1764

Made it illegal to print paper money in the colonies.

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37

Sugar Act

Increased penalty for smuggling goods and put a tax on all molasses brought into the colonies.

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38

Quartering Act

Forced colonists to provide housing and food to British troops stationed in the colonies.

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39

Samuel Adams

Led the Sons of Liberty. Proclaimed taxation without representation was tyranny.

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40

Declaratory Act

Gave Parliament the unquestionable right to tax and pass legislation in the colonies.

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41

John Dickinson

Wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania." Parliament had the right to regulate colonial trade, but could not use that power to raise revenue.

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42

Lord North

Prime minister who came to power in 1770, repealed all Townshend Acts except the tax on tea to keep the colonists under British control.

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43

Tea Act

Legalized the tax on tea and made it cheaper to purchase in the colonies.

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44

Boston Tea Party

65 men dressed as Indians snuck onto a British ship and dumped 350 chests of tea into the harbor.

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45

Intolerable Acts

Took effect in 1774 to punish the colonists for the Tea Party. Closed the port of Boston, gave the Assembly to royal control, and canceled all town meetings.

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46

Quebec Act

Increased religious freedom of French Catholics, angering the colonists.

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47

Declaration of Rights and Grievances

Written by John Adams. Stated that the colonists would not reject moves to regulate their commerce, but would resist moves to tax them without consent.

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48

Suffolk Resolves

Colonies would continue to boycott British goods and supported a colonial government until the Intolerable Acts were rescinded. Began to train local militias.

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49

Common Sense

Written by Thomas Paine. Incited resentment to the British and was a call to arms towards the colonists.

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50

Second Continental Congress

Authorized creation of a colonial army. Delegates still hoped to find an alternate way for peace with British.

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51

Battle of Yorktown

Turning point in the Revolutionary War. British were defeated in Virginia.

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52

Treaty of Paris

Treaty that ended the Rev. War. Britain recognized American independence and gave them territories from the App. Mtns. to the Miss. River.

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53

Articles of Confederation

Established the first government of the United States. Federal government was much weaker than the state, and was largely unsuccessful.

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54

Northwest Ordinances

Authorized sale of lands in NW territory to raise money for the federal govt. Laid out plans for these territories to eventually become states.

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55

Lexington and Concord

First two battles of the Rev. War. Colonists resisted and British pressed on to destroy colonial supplies.

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56

Ethan Allen

Captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British with his Green Mtn. Boys.

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57

George Washington

Commander of the Continental Army because of his experience. First president of the US who sought to establish respect for the presidency.

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58

Olive Branch Petition

Final plea for peace sent to George III, who refused to even receive the document.

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59

Declaration of Independence

Signed on June 7, 1776 officially stating colonial independence from Britain.

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60

Bunker Hill

Bloody defeat for the colonists, but also incurred many losses for the British.

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61

Battle of Trenton

Washington defeated Hessian troops on Christmas night, boosting colonial morale.

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62

Saratoga

British were defeated during their plan to take Albany, one of the turning points of the war.

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63

Valley Forge

Brief cease fire during winter, troops were plagued by malnutrition and desertion

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64

Yorktown

British general Cornwallis was defeated here by French and colonial forces. Last battle of the Rev. War.

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65

Shay's Rebellion

Farmer rebellion against the government because of inflation and debt. They were put down, but displayed the need for a stronger govt.

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66

Virginia Plan

Proposed a bicameral legislature with reps determined by a state's population.

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67

New Jersey Plan

Proposed a unicameral legislature with each state having one vote.

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68

Great Compromise

CT plan, proposed a bicameral legislature with one house determined by population and one house having equal representation.

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69

Electoral College

Procedure for electing the president and VP by number of electors, not popular vote.

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70

Three Fifths Compromise

Slaves would count as 3/5 of person to determine a state's representation in the House.

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71

Federalists

Political party that favored a larger national govt supported by commercial interests. Opposed by Jeffersonians.

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72

Alien and Sedition Acts

Proposed by Pres. John Adams which gave the pres. the power to expel "dangerous" aliens and outlaw "scandalous" publications against the govt.

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73

Anti-Federalists

Favored a smaller govt because of fear of another tyranny. They pushed for a Bill of Rights.

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74

Bill of Rights

First 10 amendments of the US. Free speech, freedom of religion, right to bear arms, no quartering of troops, warrants needed to search, trial by jury, due process of the law, no cruel and unusual punishment, unlisted rights were protected, powers not given to federal govt belonged to the states.

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75

Alexander Hamilton

Most attractive man in history. Wanted the US to be a manufacturing society and believed in mercantilism. Wanted a strong govt and a broad interpretation of the constitution. Wrote the Report on the Public Credit saying the US had to redeem notes issued by the Articles of Confed. Proposed a national bank to provide loans to businesses.

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76

Thomas Jefferson

Wanted an agricultural society, free trade, weak govt, and strict interpretation of the govt.

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77

Declaration of Neutrality

Allowed American merchants to trade with both sides of the conflict between Europe and France.

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78

Whiskey Rebellion

Pennsylvania farmers rebelled against a tax Hamilton placed on whiskey.

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79

Jay's Treaty

Britain had the right to remove French supplies from American ships, but had to leave certain forts in the NW territory.

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80

XYZ Affair

American delegates went to France to negotiate. They were met by officials who demanded a bribe before they could see Talleyrand which the delegates refused. This damaged French relations.

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81

Kentucky and Virginia Resolves

States had the right to not enforce laws that were unconstitutional.

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82

Marbury v Madison

Established judicial review, Supreme Court had the right to review all federal laws and decisions and decide whether or not they were unconstitutional.

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83

Louisiana Purchase

Purchased an enormous amount of land from Napoleon of France that doubled the size of the United States.

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84

Lewis and Clark

Discovered the western part of the country and determined economic possibilities there.

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85

War of 1812

War between Britain and America over British seizure of US ships, British alliances to Indians, and other tensions. Nothing was gained, but the treaty simply restored diplomatic relations.

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86

American System

Proposed by Henry Clay. Sought to make America economically independent by increasing industrial production and creating a Second National Bank.

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87

Missouri Compromise

Missouri would enter as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state. Laid groundwork for balance between free and slave states.

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88

Twelfth Amendment

Electoral College votes for the President and the VP separately.

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89

Judiciary Act

Created a large number of new federal courts. Repealed immediately after Jefferson took office.

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90

Embargo of 1807

American ships could not enter the seas until England and France stopped harassing American ships.

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91

Non-Intercourse Act

Opened trade with all countries except England and France because of interference.

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92

War Hawks

Young Republicans who supported war with Britain in the hopes of gaining new territories and more economic opportunities.

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93

Tecumsah

Indian leader allied with the British who was killed in an early battle of the War of 1812.

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94

Treaty of Ghent

Ended the War of 1812. Did not address problems of impressment or trading rights, but simply restored diplomatic relations between the US and GB.

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95

Hartford Convention

Meeting of Federalists who discussed their suspicion of politicians from the West, their dislike of war, and possibilities of nullification and secession. Soon after, the Federalists lost influence and began to disappear.

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96

Era of Good Feelings

Years from 1816-1823 after the Federalists disappeared when the US experienced little political tension. James Monroe was president during this time.

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97

American System

Proposed by Henry Clay, supported by Monroe. Goal was to increase US economic independence by manufacturing goods within the country rather than relying on exports. Also supported creation of a Second National Bank.

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98

Tariff of 1816

Raised tariff rates to 22% to provide protection for American business interests and revenue for improving the transportation system.

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99

Monroe Doctrine

Stated that European powers were not to colonize any more countries in the Western Hemisphere.

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100

Removal Act of 1830

Authorized the removal of all Native American tribes east of the Mississippi into the West. Started the Trail of Tears, which killed thousands.

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