Unit 8: Clinical Psychology

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Humanistic school

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64 Terms

1

Humanistic school

of psychology suggests that disordered behavior is, in part, a result of people being too sensitive to the criticisms and judgments of others.

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Cognitive perspective

views disordered behavior as the result of faulty or illogical thoughts.

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3

Behavioral approach

to disordered behavior is based on the notion that all behavior, including disordered behavior, is learned.

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4

Biological view

of disordered behavior, which is a popular one in the United States at the present time, views disordered behavior as a manifestation of abnormal brain function, due to either structural or chemical abnormalities in the brain.

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5

Sociocultural approach

holds that society and culture help define what is acceptable behavior.

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6

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)

is the American Psychiatric Association’s handbook for the identification and classification of behavioral disorders.

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7

Intellectual disability

(formerly known as mental retardation) is characterized by delayed development in general mental abilities (reasoning, problem-solving, judgment, academic learning, etc.).

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8

Autism spectrum disorder

is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often manifests early on in childhood development.

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9

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

is described as patterned inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity.

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10

Delusions

are beliefs that are not based in reality, such as believing that one can fly, that one is the president of a country, or that one is being pursued by the CIA (assuming that these things are not true).

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11

Hallucinations

are perceptions that are not based in reality, such as seeing things or hearing voices that are not there, or feeling spiders on one’s skin (assuming they are not really there).

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12

positive symptom

of schizophrenic disorders refers to something that a person has that typical people do not.

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13

negative symptom

refers to something that typical people do have, but that one does not have.

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14

Bipolar disorders

as the name suggests, involves movement between two poles

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15

depressive disorders

involve the presence of a sad, empty, or irritable mood, combined with changes in thinking and bodily functioning that significantly impair one’s ability to function.

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16

Fear

is an emotional response to something present; anxiety is a related emotional response, but to a future threat or a possibility of danger.

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17

Panic disorder

is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurring panic attacks, as well as the constant worry of another panic attack occurring.

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18

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

is an anxiety disorder characterized by an almost constant state of autonomic nervous system arousal and feelings of dread and worry.

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19

Phobias

or persistent, irrational fears of common events or objects, are also anxiety disorders.

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20

Agoraphobia

for example, is the fear of being in open spaces, public places, or other places from which escape is perceived to be difficult.

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21

Obsessions

are intrusive (unwanted) thoughts, urges, or images that plague the individual.

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22

Compulsions

are repetitive behaviors (or mental acts) that one feels compelled to perform, often in relation to an obsession.

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23

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

which can involve intrusive thoughts or dreams related to the trauma, irritability, avoidance of situations that might recall the traumatic event, sleep disturbances, diminished interest in formerly pleasurable activities, and social withdrawal.

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24

reactive attachment disorder

which can occur in seriously neglected children who are unable to form attachments to their adult caregivers, and adjustment disorders, or maladaptive responses to particular stressors.

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25

dissociative amnesia

an inability to recall life events that goes far beyond normal forgetting.

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26

dissociative identity disorder

(formerly known as multiple personality disorder), in which one may not only “lose time,” but also manifest a separate personality during that lost time.

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27

Somatic symptom disorder

involves, as one might expect, bodily symptoms combined with disordered thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors connected to these symptoms.

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28

Somatic symptom disorder

involves, as one might expect, bodily symptoms combined with disordered thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors connected to these symptoms.

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29

Conversion disorder

(formerly known as hysteria) involves bodily symptoms like changed motor function or changed sensory function that are incompatible with neurological explanations.

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30

Factitious disorder

in which an individual knowingly falsified symptoms in order to get medical care, or sympathy or aid from others.

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31

Anorexia nervosa

(commonly called anorexia) involves not only restriction of food intake, but also intense fear of gaining weight and disturbances in self-perception, such as thinking one looks fat, when one does not.

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32

Bulimia nervosa

(commonly called bulimia) involves recurrent episodes of binge-eating

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33

Binge-eating disorder

might be thought of as bulimia without purging.

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34

Pica

refers to regular consumption of non-nutritive substances (plastic, paper, dirt, string, chalk, etc.).

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35

Cluster A

includes paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders.

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36

Cluster B

includes antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders.

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Borderline personality disorder

involves a very stormy relationship with the world, with others, and with one’s own feelings.

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38

Histrionic personality disorder

involves a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking, beyond what might be considered normal (even in a “culture of selfies”).

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Narcissistic personality disorder

involves an overinflated sense of self-importance, fantasies of success, beliefs that one is special, a sense of entitlement, a lack of empathy for others, and a display of arrogant behaviors or attitudes.

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40

Cluster C

includes avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

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Avoidant personality disorder

involves an enduring pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to real or perceived criticism, which lead to avoidance behavior in relation to social, personal, and intimate relationships.

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Dependent personality disorder

is marked by an excessive need to be cared for, leading to clingy and submissive behavior and fears of separation.

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Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)

is marked by a rigid concern with order, perfectionism, control, and work, at the expense of flexibility, spontaneity, openness, and play.

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44

Psychoanalysis

or psychoanalytic therapy, as it is sometimes called, was first developed by Freud and focuses on probing past defense mechanisms of repression and rationalization to understand the unconscious cause of a problem.

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45

Countertransference

may occur if the therapist transfers his or her own feelings onto the patient.

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46

Client-centered therapy

was invented by Carl Rogers and involves the assumption that clients can be understood only in terms of their own realities.

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47

Unconditional positive regard

is a term used in psychology to refer to an attitude of acceptance and warmth towards another person, regardless of their behavior or beliefs.

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48

Accurate empathic understanding

is the ability to accurately understand and identify what someone else is feeling.

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49

Behavioral therapy

stands in dramatic contrast to the insight therapies.

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50

Counterconditioning

is a technique in which a response to a given stimulus is replaced by a different response.

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51

Implosion

is a similar technique, in which the client imagines the disruptive stimuli rather than actually confronting them.

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52

Operant conditioning

is a behavior-control technique that we discussed in the chapter on learning.

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53

Modeling

is a therapeutic approach based on Bandura’s social learning theory.

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54

Maladaptive schemas

include arbitrary inference, in which a person draws conclusions without evidence, and dichotomous thinking, which involves all-or-none conceptions of situations.

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55

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

is a form of treatment in which fairly high voltages of electricity are passed across a patient’s head.

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56

Psychopharmacology

is the treatment of psychological and behavioral maladaptations with drugs.

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57

Antipsychotics

like Clozapine, Thorazine, and Haldol reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia by blocking the neural receptors for dopamine.

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58

Antidepressants

can be grouped into three types

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59

MAO inhibitors

like Eutron, work by increasing the amount of serotonin and norepinephrine in the synaptic cleft.

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60

Tricyclics

like Norpramin, Amitriptyline, and Imipramine increase the amount of serotonin and norepinephrine.

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61

Benzodiazepines

which also include Valium (Diazepam) and Librium (Chlordiazepoxide), cause muscle relaxation and a feeling of tranquility.

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62

Lithium carbonate

a salt, is effective in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

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63

Group therapy

in which clients meet together with a therapist as an interactive group, has some advantages over individual therapy.

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64

Twelve-step programs

are one form of group therapy, although they are usually not moderated by professional psychotherapists.

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