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what is community-based nursing

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what is community-based nursing

caring for individuals, families, or groups where they live, work, or go to school

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which form of care is setting specific: community health or community based nursing

community based nursing

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who is the primary client for community based nursing

individual and family

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what type of services are provided in community based nursing

direct services with an emphasis on managing acute and chronic illnesses

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what is community health nursing

promotes and preserves the health of the whole population

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who is the primary client in community health nursing

community

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what type of services are provided in community health nursing

direct and indirect

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what is primary prevention

health promotion and eliminating risk factors

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what are examples of primary prevention

vaccines, seat belts

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what is secondary prevention

early detection and intervention

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what are examples of secondary prevention

screenings such as mammograms or STD testing

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what is tertiary prevention

long term management and rehab

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what are examples of tertiary prevention

physical therapy

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what does the health belief model focus on

how the individual perceives their own health

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is the health belief model a microscopic or macroscopic view

microscopic

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what is a limitation of the health belief model

places all responsibility on the patient rather than examining the root cause

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what is thinking upstream

examining the origin of the disease and focusing on preventing it rather than treating it

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what does the web of causation depict

the complexity of relationships between different factors and how health is affected

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what are the 3 components of the epidemiological triangle

host, agent, environment

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what is the principal of the epidemiological triangle

if one factor is taken away, you eliminate transmission

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what is the agent

etiological factor

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what is an example of a nutritive agent

too much cholesterol leads to atherosclerosis, too little vitamin C leads to scurvy

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what is an example of a chemical agent

vaping, asbestos

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what is an example of a physical agent

repetitive motions causing carpal tunnel

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what is an example of an infectious agent

bacteria, virus

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what is the host

intrinsic factors such as genetics or age that affect ones susceptibility or response to an agent

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what is the environment

extrinsic factors that influence the existence of the agent such as physical environment

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what does the wheel model of human-environment interaction state

biological, social, and environmental factors all impact the host

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person, place, and time model: person

who factors such as demographics and health

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person, place, and time model: place

where factors such as geographic location and climate

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person, place, and time model: time

when factors such as month or year

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what is incidence

new cases

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what is prevalence

total cases

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what do descriptive epidemiological methods looks at

amount and distribution of health problems to identify a pattern

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what do analytic models of epidemiology look at

focus on the cause of the disease

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what is an observational study

no manipulation, just observation

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what is a cross-sectional/correlational study

look at relationships between factors and outcomes

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what is a retrospective study

compares a group with the disease to those without, goes back in time to see what happened

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what is a prospective study

follows a group without the condition over time to see if they get the disease

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what is an experimental study

randomized clinical trial to determine cause and effect

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how does one complete a windshield survery

walk or drive around an area to make observations and identify possible areas of concern

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what is vital statisitic

contains birth, death, marriage, divorce, and adoption records

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what is census data

massive survey every 10 years that shows how an area has changed over time

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what is the goal of the health planning model

improve aggregate health

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what are the components of the health planning model

assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation

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what is the goal of the PRECEDE-PROCEED framework

assess health and quality of life issues

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P: PRECEDE-PROCEED

predisposing factors

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what are predisposing factors

knowledge and behaviors that affect ones willingness to change

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R: PRECEDE-PROCEED

reinforcing factors

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what are reinforcing factors

positive or negative effects of adopting a new behavior

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E: PRECEDE-PROCEED

enabling factors

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what are enabling factors

an environment or community that facilitates or presents obstacles to change

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PROCEED

policy, regulatory, organizational construct in educational and environmental development

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what is the purpose of case management

collaborative care to manage healthcare and improve functioning for the client

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what is primary care

first line/point of access care controlled by providers and focused on the individual

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who has access to chronic care management

patients with 2 or more chronic conditions that put them at a high risk of functional decline or death within the next 12 months

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what is transitional care

face-to-face visits and coordination of care services with clients following their discharge

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what is the goal of transitional care

decrease re-hospitalizations

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what is patient centered medical home care

uses case management to provide comprehensive, patient centered, and high quality primary care

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how did the patient protection and affordable care act increase health care coverage

requires all citizens to have health care coverage and prohibiting insurance companies from denying coverage to those with pre-existing conditions

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what age did the patient protection and affordable care act allow coverage-dependent adults to remain on their parent's health care

26

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what is policy based on

values

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what is the first step in shifting policy

identifying a problem

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what is the focus of private healthcare

individuals

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what is the goal of private health care

prevention and treatment of disease

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what is central to public health care

economics

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what is the goal of public health care

prevention of disease and promoting public health

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who is the focus of the public health system

populations

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who directs the public health system

federal government

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what is the major finding of "to err is human"

medical errors are the fault of system errors not humans

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what are the recommendations for reducing medical errors

accreditation, use of information technology such as EMR

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what does accreditation do

assess and specify standards and quality of services

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future of nursing report reccomendations

nurses should practice to full extent and pursue higher education, partner with other health professionals, and that data collection needs to be improved to make policy making more effective

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what is the role of the agency for healthcare research and quality

federal organization to improve safety and quality of the healthcare system

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what is a health disparity

difference in the presence of disease, health outcomes, or access to healthcare among different populations

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responsibilities of the local health department

public health services, protection of citizens, monitoring health status and needs, control of disease and environmental services

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how is medicare funded

federally through taxes

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who qualifies for medicare

65 or older, disabled, ALS, or end stage renal disease

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what does medicare part A cover

hospitalizations, some hospice and home health

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what does medicare part B cover

durable medical equipment

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what does medicare part C cover

gap coverage for dental, vision, and hearing

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what does medicare part D cover

prescription drugs

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who determines eligibility for medicaid

states

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what is medicaid welfare coverage based on

size and income of family

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