# AP Stats Unit 1 Exploring One Variable Data

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Individuals

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## Description and Tags

### 21 Terms

1

Individuals

objects described by a set of data

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2

Variable

any characteristic of an individual

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3

categorical variable

descriptive variable

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4

quantitative variable

numerical variable

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5

how to describe distributions

with the mnemonic device SOCS

• S- Spread. Give the lowest and highest values of the set

• O- Outliers. Are there any values that stand out in the distribution?

• C- Center. What is the approximate mean?

• S- Spread. Does the graph show symmetry or skew?

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6

Five number summary

Minimum, Q1, Median, Q2, Maximum

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7

How do you find an outlier

1.5 times IQR (subtract this value from Q1 or add to Q3)

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8

IQR

Q3 minus Q1

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9

Density Curve

Always on or above the horizontal axis

Has an area of 1

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10

median

where the curve would be split to be perfectly in half (resistant to outliers)

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11

mean

where the curve would be perfectly balanced (closer to skew, influenced by outliers)

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12

z-score

how many standard deviations you are away from the mean

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13

Pth percentile

the value such that p percentile fall at our below it

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14

discrete variable

countable number of values

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15

continuous variable

infinite number of values

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16

how do you find relative frequency

dividing the frequency for each category by the sum of all frequencies

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17

dependent variable

the variables that are being measured or observed in a study.

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18

independent variables

the variables that are being manipulated or controlled in a study.

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19

controlled variables

variables that are kept constant or controlled in a study,

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20

sum of all standard deviations

is equal to zero

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21

when should standard deviation be used

used when the mean is chosen as the measure of center

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