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three phases of economic production

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159 Terms

1

three phases of economic production

Production, exchange, and consumption

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2

Mode of production

Social relations through which human labor is used to transform, energy from nature using tools, skills, organization, and knowledge is called

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3

Domestic production

following modes of production is characterized by subsistence food-getting, egalitarianism, and labor organized on the basis of kinship

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4

Capitalist production

the three modes of production is the most recent

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5

The three modes of exchange

Reciprocity, market exchange, and redistribution

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6

Generalized reciprocity

Gifts that are given without agreeing upon the exact value of the gift, nor the time frame within which it should be returned

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7

General purpose money is

All of the above

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8

Economic anthropologists have studied the results of Westernization around the world, and found that increasing numbers of McDonalds (or other Western commodities) have

Not Westernized people in the ways originally feared, and in some cases have caused a resurgence of local identities

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9

Which of the following is NOT a feature of commodities?

They retain the same value and meaning for their owners from production to consumption

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10

Structure violence

A form of violence in which a social structure or institution harms people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs

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11

Legitimacy to rule may be reinforced in which of the following ways

All of the above

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12

Four levels of socio-cultural integration characterized by Elman Service are

Band, tribe, chiefdom, and state

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13

Why doesn't class stratification develop in foraging societies?

There's no advantage to hoarding food or having too much personal property

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14

Tribes

Societies that are characterized by groups of people linked by age, gift exchanges, or marriage, a lack of central government, leadership roles that are open to everyone, and egalitarian set of values

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15

Sodality is characterized by

Groups of people in a tribe who are connected by age

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16

Raids

Short-term uses of physical force that are organized to achieve a limited objective such as the acquisition of cattle, wealth, or abduction of women are called

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17

Ranked societies

Societies that have greater differentiation between individuals and their kin groups, resulting in sumptuary rules that permit higher-status individuals to wear distinctive clothing or other decorations

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18

Stratified society

A society in which elites, who are a numerical minority control the strategic resources that sustain life

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19

What is the correct relationship between a state and a nation?

A state is a coercive political institution; nation is an ethnic population

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20

In the film "The Sixth Resettlement" why has the government

The government wants to civilize and modernize the Koo Cong

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21

Matrilocal

Residence pattern in which couple resides wife's mother's family after marriage

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22

Relationships formed through blood connections are called _, while those formed through marriage are called _.

Consanguineal, affinal

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23

Patrilineal

Some cultures recognize descent in a family lineage only on the father's side

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24

All of the following are true about matrilineages EXCEPT

They are also matriarchal, that is, women have more power than mean

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25

The family in which a person is raised is their family of _, while the family they may create by marrying and raising children is their family of _.

Orientation, procreation

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26

Nuclear family

A family of parents in a culturally-recognized relationship, such as marriage, and their minor or dependent children

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27

Endogamy

The cultural rule which emphasizes the need to marry within a cultural group

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28

Polyandry

The term anthropologists use for a marriage between one woman and multiple husbands

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29

Anthropologists use the term domestic group to refer to a

Group of people who live together and share activities such as cooking, childcare, and economic support

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30

Dowry

type of property exchange demonstrates the higher status of the groom's family and its ability to demand a payment for taking on the economic responsibility of a young wife

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31

Reification

The process by which an inaccurate concept or idea is so heavily promoted and circulated by people that it becomes an unquestioned truth

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32

Any efforts to classify human populations into racial categories should best be understood as

Arbitrary and subjective

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33

Lumpers

Scholars who create racial classification schemes that use general categories that span a large geographic area (often continents)

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34

Skin color in humans is represented in geography by a cline, or clinal pattern. The skin color cline means that

A certain skin color may be more common in one region than another but the variation is gradual and continuous

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35

Nonconcordant

The anthropological term for a trait that is inherited independently and not bundled together with other traits is

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36

The greatest genetic diversity is between

"Blacks" and other "blacks" on the same continent

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37

When anthropologists say "race is not real" what they mean more accurately is that

Race is not an accurate way to describe any biological differences in the human species, but ideas about race are real ins social and cultural ways

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38

Racial formation

The process by which social, economic, and political forces determine the content and importance of racial categories

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39

Hypodescent

A socially constructed racial classification system in which a person of mixed racial heritage is automatically categorized as a member of the less or least privileged grp

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40

How ethnicity differs from race

An ethnic group claims a distinct identity based on cultural characteristic and shared heritage, while race defined groups based on arbitrary physical traits

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41

Gender ideology

The set of ideas about the categories of gender and the beliefs, behaviors, and meanings associated with each gender

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42

All of the ff are true about gender cross culturally EXCEPT

Gender is always binary or dualistic, consisting of males and females

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43

What type of food was discovered to make up the majority of the diet of human forages

Plant foods such as nuts, fruits, and roots

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44

Patriarchal

A Male-dominated political and authority structure and an ideology that privileges male over females overall

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45

Legitimizing ideologies

Complex belief systems often developed by those in power to rationalize, explain, and perpetuate systems of inequality

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46

Transgender

A person whose gender identity does not match their assigned sex at birth, such as a person assigned female at birth who identifies as a man, may self-identify in a binary way

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47

The term cisgender means

A person whose assigned sex at birth matchers their gender identity, such as a person assigned female wat birth who identifies as a woman

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48

Heteronormativity

The often unnoticed system of right and privileges that accompany normative sexual choices and family formation

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49

Foraging and horticultural societies

The type of society most likely to recognize women's economic and reproductive contributions as well as more egalitarian...

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50

Cross-culturally and historically, marriages based on free choice and romantic love are

Relatively unusual and recent

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51

Animatism

A religious system organized around a belief in an impersonal supernatural force(Ex. a god)

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52

Animism

A religious system organized around a belief that plants, animals, inanimate objects, or natural phenomena have a spiritual or supernatural element

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53

anthropomorphic

an object or being that has human characteristics

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54

cargo cult

a term sometimes used to describe rituals that seek to attract material prosperity. The term is generally not preferred by anthropologists.

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55

collective effervescence

the passion or energy that arises when groups of people share the same thoughts and emotions.

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56

cosmology

an explanation for the origin or history of the world

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57

Filial Piety

a tradition requiring that the young provide care for the elderly and in some cases ancestral spirits.

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58

magic

practices intended to bring supernatural forces under one's personal control

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59

Monotheistic

religious systems that recognize a single supreme God.

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60

Polytheistic

religious systems that recognize several gods.

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61

Preists

full-time religious practitioners

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62

profane

objects or ideas are ordinary and can be treated with disregard or contempt

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63

Prophet

a person who claims to have direct communication with the supernatural realm and who can communicate divine messages to others.

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64

Reincarnation

the idea that a living being can begin another life in a new body after death

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65

Religion

the extension of human society and culture to include the supernatural

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66

revitalization rituals

attempts to resolve serious problems, such as war, famine or poverty through a spiritual or supernatural intervention

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67

rite of intensification

actions designed to bring a community together, often following a period of crisis.

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68

rites of passage

actions designed to transition individuals between life stages

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69

sacred

objects or ideas are set apart from the ordinary and treated with great respect or care

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70

Preist

a part time religious practitioner who carries out religious rituals when needed, but also participates in the normal work of the community.

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71

sorcerer

an individual who seeks to use magic for his or her own purposes

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72

supernatural

describes entities or forces not governed by natural laws

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73

Zoomorphic

an object or being that has animal characteristics

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74

commodity chain

the series of steps a food takes from location where it is produced to the store where it is sold to consumers

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75

Ethnoscape

the flow of people across boundaries.

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76

Financescape

the flow of money across political borders

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77

Global North

refers to the wealthier countries of the world. The definition includes countries that are sometimes called "First World" or "Highly Developed Economies."

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78

Global South

refers to the poorest countries of the world. The definition includes countries that are sometimes called "Third World" or "Least Developed Economies."

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79

Glocalization

the adaptation of global ideas into locally palatable forms

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80

Habitus

the dispositions, attitudes, or preferences that are the learned basis for personal "taste" and lifestyles

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81

Ideoscape

the global flow of ideas

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82

Mediascape

the flow of media across borders.

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83

Neoliberalism

the ideology of free-market capitalism emphasizing privatization and unregulated markets

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84

Syncretism

the combination of different beliefs, even those that are seemingly contrterm-35adictory, into a new, harmonious whole

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85

Technoscape

the global flows of technology.

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86

Cultural infrastructure

the values and beliefs of communities, states, and/or societies that make the imagining of a particular type of network possible

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87

fabrication

a technique for reporting on research data that involves mixing information provided by various people into a narrative account that demonstrates the point of focus for researchers.

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88

Indigenous Media

media produced by and for indigenous communities often outside of the commercial mainstream

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89

mass communication

one-to-many communication that privileges the sender and/ or owner of the technology that transmits the media

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90

media

a word that used to describe a set of technologies that connect multiple people at one time to shared content

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91

Media Practices

the habits or behaviors of the people who produce media, the audiences who interact with media, and everyone in between.

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92

Mechanical infrastructure

the apparatuses that bring networks of technology into existence

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93

Photovoice

a research method that puts cameras into people's hands so they can make their own representations of their lives and the activities.

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94

adaptive

traits that increase the capacity of individuals to survive and reproduce

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95

biocultural evolution

describes the interactions between biology and culture that have influenced human evolution

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96

biomedical

an approach to medicine that is based on the application of insights from science, particularly biology and chemistry

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97

Communal healing

an approach to healing that directs the combined efforts of the community toward treating illness

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98

culture-bound syndrome

an illness recognized only within a specific culture

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99

Emotionalistic explanation

suggests that illnesses are caused by strong emotions such as fright, anger, or grief; this is an example of a naturalistic ethno-etiology.

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100

epidemiolgical transition

the sharp drop in mortality rates, particularly among children, that occurs in a society as a result of improved sanitation and access to healthcare

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