AP Bio - Unit 7: Evolution (speciation)

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types of population selection

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12 Terms

1

types of population selection

Directional, stabilizing, and disruptive

<p>Directional, stabilizing, and disruptive</p>
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2

Species

A group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring

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3

Hardy-Weinberg meaning and equation

Genetic variation will stay consistent across generations in the absence of disturbances

p = dominant

q = recessive

phenotypic frequency:

p² + 2pq + q² = 1

Allele Frequency:

p + q = 1

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4

speciation

The formation of a new and distinct species in the course of evolution

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5

2 Types of speciation

Allopatric and sympatric

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Allopatric Speciaiton

One species is separated by geographic environments they undergo allopatric speciation. If they were to meet again in the future they would not interbreed

e.g. california salamanders

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Sympatric Speciation

Even though both populations inhabit the same area, a new species evolves through pre-zygotic isolation

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Types of pre-zygotic isolation

Gamete Isolation

  • gametes cant fuse/fertilize

Behavioral Isolation

  • courtship displays and different

Mechanical Isolation

  • Incompatible sex organs

Temporal Isolation

  • mating timing becomes different (nocturnal vs diurnal)

Habitat Isolation

  • different habitats in the same location

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post-Zygotic isolation

prevents the creation of a fertile offspring

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Advantages of hybridization

favorable traits, survival of endangered species

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Disadvantages of hybridizaiton

low zygotic viability (severe abnormalities, fails to mature), infertility, low adult viability (low survival rate because traits arent suited for any environment)

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12

Micro evolution vs Macro evolution

micro: evolution in a short period of time (couple of generations)

macro: evolution over a long period of time

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