Unit 3 - Developmental Psychology Terms

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Critical Period (Theory)

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Psychology

80 Terms

1

Critical Period (Theory)

The Theory that there is a certain Window of Time for development of certain things. Missing that window means Missing Development Entirely.

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Maturation

Development that simply Unfolds Naturally over time. Changes that you go through as you age.

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3

(Theory of) Continuity

The developmental Theory which proposes that development is Continuous, Gradual, and Almost Imperceptible.

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4

(Theory of) Discontinuity

The developmental Theory which proposes that development is Stage-Like, and changes are more Drastic and Abrupt.

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5

Zygotic (Stage)

The First stage of Pregnancy which spans 0 - 2 Weeks Old and is characterized by Massive Cell Division.

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6

Embryonic (Stage)

The Second stage of Pregnancy which spans Weeks 2 - 8 and is characterized by the start of Cell Specialization and Organ Development.

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7

Fetal (Stage)

The Third stage of Pregnancy which spans Weeks 9 - Birth and is characterized by the Full Organ Development

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8

Teratogen(s)

Any agent that can harm an embryo or fetus.

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9

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

A phenomenon caused by consuming Alcohol while Pregnant which can cause Intellectual Disability, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity.

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10

Rooting (Reflex)

when you touch an infant's cheek, he will turn his head toward whatever is touching the cheek

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11

Sucking (Reflex)

An Innate Reflex all babies are born with which causes them to Suck on Everything.

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12

Grasping (Reflex)

An Innate Reflex all babies are born with which causes them to Grasp at anything put in their Palm.

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13

Moro/Startle (Reflex)

An Innate Reflex all babies are born with which causes them to Spread their arms and digits out, then Tuck inward.

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14

Babinski (Reflex)

An Innate Reflex all babies are born with which causes them to Cling to things with their Feet as an evolutionary advantage.

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15

Stepping (Reflex)

An Innate Reflex all babies are born with which causes them to Step/Walk when Suspended Upright just over a Surface.

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16

Habituation

Infants as young as 1 Hour seem to have some level of ___________________ in their brains as they will tend to stare at Three Dots in the pattern of a Face rather than three random dots.

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17

Imitation

The process by which babies tend to Mimic faces presented to them, possibly because of Mirror Neurons.

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18

Imprinting

The process of forming an Immediate Attachment to someone/something after Birth.

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19

(Harry) Harlow

The psychologist who coined the term Contact Comfort after testing whether a Newborn Monkey, separated from its mother, would prefer a Cloth Mannequin, or a Wire one with Food.

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20

Contact Comfort

The Comfort and Newborns feel after receiving Physiologically Necessary Touch from their mother.

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21

Cohort

A Group of People around the Same Age who have experienced most of the Same Historical Changes.

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22

Cohort Effect

When a Disparity between Cohorts arises as a result of the Different Time Periods in which they grew up.

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23

(Jean) Piaget

The psychologist who proposed that babies' minds were Not just Miniature Adult Minds, and instead Reasoned Differently. He proposed 4 Stages of Cognitive Development.

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24

Sensorimotor (Stage)

The 1st Stage in Piaget's Development Theory that spans ~0 - 2 Years Old and is when the child Explores and Learns with their Senses and develops Motor Abilities. Object Permanence is also learned.

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25

Object Permanence

The understanding (usually learned between 4-8 Months Old) that a Previously Seen Object Continues to Exist even when it can No Longer be Observed.

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26

Preoperational (Stage)

The 2nd Stage in Piaget's Development Theory that spans ~2 - 7 Years Old and is when the child begins to Pretend Play and develop more complex Social Abilities. They also gain Symbolic Thinking, Animism, Egocentrism, and Theory of Mind.

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27

Animism

The ability (gained in the Preoperational Stage) to apply Feelings or Intentions to Inanimate Objects.

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Egocentrism

The inability (in the Preoperational Stage) for children to take the perspective of another person.

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29

Theory of Mind

The ability (gained ~4 Yrs Old in the Preoperational Stage) to Empathize and understand that others have their Own Thoughts and Feelings.

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30

Concrete Operational (Stage)

The 3rd Stage in Piaget's Development Theory that spans ~7 - 11 Years Old and is when the child becomes capable of Logical Thinking and understands Conservation.

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Conservation

The understanding that the Amount of something Doesn't Necessarily Change with changes in Appearance or Arrangement.

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32

Formal Operational (Stage)

The 4th Stage in Piaget's Development Theory that spans ~12 Years Onward and is when the child can think Abstractly and Hypothetically.

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33

(Lev) Vygotsky

The Russian theorist who argued that Socialization was more important than Maturation and that children need Mentors to develop and Inner Speech. Also proposed Zone of Prox. Dev.

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34

Zone (of) Proximal Development

The divide between what a child Knows/Can Do Independently and what they might have the Potential To Do given a supportive environment (Abbreviated ZPD).

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35

Sex

The term for whether somebody is Biologically Male/Female.

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36

Gender

Culturally Acquired Behaviors and Attributes associated with one's Biological Sex.

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37

Gender Identity

The Sense of being Male or Female.

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38

Gender Role(s)

The Behaviors considered Appropriate for Males and Females in a given Social Setting.

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39

Gender Typing

The process of Acquiring traditional Roles associated with the Distinctions between Males and Females in a Culture.

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40

Gender Schema(s)

Mental Constructs or Generalizations about which toys, activities, and jobs are Most Associated with Males and Females.

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41

Androgyny

The presence of Both Male and Female Behaviors or Characteristics in the Same Person.

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42

Stranger (Anxiety)

An Anxiety towards Strangers developed between 6-8 Months Old.

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43

Separation (Anxiety)

Anxiety about being Separated from Primary Caretakers developed around 8 Months Old.

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44

(Mary) Ainsworth

A psychologist who developed Attachment Styles after studying how children react to their mother Returning after leaving them.

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45

Secure (Attachment)

An Attachment Style where the child is Comforted by the mother and uses her as a Secure Base for Exploration.

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46

Avoidant (Attachment)

An Attachment Style where the child Avoids Contact and Interaction with the mother.

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47

Ambivalent (Attachment)

An Attachment Style where the child seems to Want the mother, but also Pushes Her Away because they are Angry (AKA Resistant Attachment).

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48

Disorganized (Attachment)

An Attachment Style where the child appears Confused, Disoriented, and even Fearful with the mother. This is correlated with Abusive Home environments.

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49

Positively

Secure Attachment is _______________(Positively/Negatively) Correlated with Happier and Healthier relationships later in life.

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50

Authoritarian

A Parenting Style that is Strict and has Many Rules.

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51

Authoritative

A Parenting Style that is Warm, Responsive, and Involved. There are clear Behavior Standards set, but the Child's Demands are Taken Into Account.

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52

Permissive

Parenting style consisting of very few rules and allowing children to make most decisions and control their own behavior.

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53

Authoritative

This Parenting Style is most correlated with Positive Outcomes for children

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54

Erik Erikson

A psychologist who proposed an 8 Stage Psychosocial Theory with each containing a Crisis that the person must Overcome for Healthy Development.

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55

Trust vs Mistrust

The 1st Stage in Erikson's Psychosocial Theory that spans ~0 - 18 Months Old and is where the child learns what to Trust in their environment.

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56

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt

The 2nd Stage in Erikson's Psychosocial Theory that spans ~18 Months - 3 Yrs and is a period marked by Dramatic physical and cognitive Gains and where the child seeks a sense of Internal Control and Independence, but feels Shame at Losses of Self Control.

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57

Initiative vs Guilt

The 3rd Stage in Erikson's Psychosocial Theory that spans ~3 - 6 Yrs Old where Self Esteem emerges, Self Concept is developed, and the child can now Set Goals and Work Towards Them. They Initiate tasks, and feel Guilt (not shame) for Failures.

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58

Industry vs Inferiority

The 4th Stage in Erikson's Psychosocial Theory that spans ~6 - 12 Yrs Old where the child seeks to Master Cognitive and Social Skills. Success makes them feel Industrious and Competent, while Failure leads to feelings of Inferiority and Inadequacy.

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59

Identity vs Confusion

The 5th Stage in Erikson's Psychosocial Theory that spans Adolescence where the teenager seeks to gain an understanding of Who One Is and What Roles one should play As an Adult.

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60

Intimacy vs Isolation

The 6th Stage in Erikson's Psychosocial Theory that spans Early Adulthood and is where the Young Adult either successfully establishes Strong Committed Relationships or faces some Isolation.

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61

Generativity vs Stagnation

The 7th Stage in Erikson's Psychosocial Theory that spans Middle Adulthood and is where Adults strive to be Productive and leave a Lasting Legacy. A Failure to be Generative could lead to feelings of Emptiness and Purposelessness and a hatred of younger generations.

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62

Integrity vs Despair

The 8th Stage in Erikson's Psychosocial Theory that spans Late Adulthood where Older Adults either feel a sense of Accomplished Pride in their lives, or of Missed Opportunities and Sadness.

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63

Puberty

The point at which people are Sexually Mature and can Reproduce. Here they Acquire Primary and Secondary sex characteristics.

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64

Primary (Sex Characteristics)

Sex Characteristics that are Directly Involved with Reproduction.

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65

Secondary (Sex Characteristics)

Sex Characteristics that are NOT Directly Involved in Reproduction.

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66

Imaginary Audience (Belief)

The Belief that one is constantly being Monitored, watching for Mistakes and moments of Embarassment. It is especially common in Adolescence.

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67

Frontal (Lobes)

Of all the Lobes, the ______________ Lobes undergo the Most Development during Adolescence.

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68

Emerging Adulthood

An Intermediate Stage between Adolescence and Adulthood to account for the Increase In Time that kids Stay With Their Parents and Before Marriage.

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69

Social Clock

Social Pressure to do a certain Task at a certain Age because of societal expectations.

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70

Empty Nest Syndrome

The emotional distress Parents experience due to the Last of their Children Leaving Home.

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71

Grief Theory

A set of Stages developed by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross which covers the process of Thinking About and Dealing With Death.

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72

Bargaining

The 5 Stages of Grief Theory are Denial, Anger, ___________________, Depression, and Acceptance.

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73

(The) Heinz Dilemma

A fictional story used by Lawrence Kohlberg to evaluate levels of Moral Reasoning in Children centered around Stealing a drug to Save a Life.

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74

(Lawrence) Kohlberg

The psychologist who used the Heinz Dilemma to devise a Stage Theory about the Three Levels of Moral Reasoning.

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75

Preconventional (Level)

The Level of Moral Reasoning in Kohlberg's Theory where the focus is Reward and Punishment Responses are Self Interested.

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Conventional (Level)

The Level of Moral Reasoning in Kohlberg's Theory where the focus is on Social Conventions. Responses center on what Others would Think of Them and rules Everyone Agrees to Follow.

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Postconventional (Level)

The Level of Moral Reasoning in Kohlberg's Theory that spans ~13 Yrs Old Onwards (if ever) where moral decisions are based on Personal and Internal Judgement of what is Right and Wrong.

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78

(Carol) Gillian

The psychologist who Challenged Kohlberg's Theory arguing that male and females view moral dilemmas differently.

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79

Assimilation

The process of fitting new information to Existing Schemas.

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80

Accomodation

The process of significantly modifying or Creating a New Schema based on a new experience.

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