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Define Empirical Research
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is based on observed and measured phenomena and derives knowledge from actual experience rather than from theory
What are the 2 scientific standards for agreement reality?
What is the FORMAL definition of social science research methods ?
A systematic procedure or technique used by a discipline to acquire knowledge
What is the INFORMAL definition of social science research methods?
The study of how we know what we know
What are the 2 reasons we need to know about social science research methods?
Being Consumers of Research2. Being Producers of research
What is Qualitative Data?
Data explained with words than numbers
What is quantative data?
Explain the basic flow of the research circle...
Inductive research = deductive research data = theory
What is Deductive Research?
Theoretical expectation leads to gathering of data to test the expectation in the real world (general to specific)
What is Inductive Research?
Specific observations lead to a discovery of a general pattern (specific to general)
Name the 4 purposes of research
Evaluation/ Applied Research
What is Descriptive Research?
seeks to define and describe a social phenomena Ex: "how much crime there is" - "how many people attend this university"
What is Exploratory Research?
seeks to understand and investigate social phenomena about which little is known. often qualitative
What is Explanatory Research?
seeks to identify causes and effects of social phenomena
What is Evaluation/ Applied Research?
seeks to determine the overall effectiveness of a CJ intervention
What's a hypothesis?
Specific statements or predictions regarding the relationship between two variables
What does Idiographic mean?
a full and complete explanation of a single case Ex: diving into all the details of the person's life (childhood) which then uncovers possible trauma
What does Nomothetic mean?
a simple (parsimonious) explanation of related cases
Independent Variable (IV)
variable that is manipulated or the presumed cause
Dependent Variable (DV)
The measured outcome of a study; the responses of the subjects in a study aka. presumed outcome or effect
Difference between a variable and an attribute..
-variables are logical groupings of attributes; age, sex, race -attributes are characteristics that describe a person, place, or thing
What are the 6 criteria that is needed for evaluating criminological theories?
What the difference between micro and macro levels of theory?
Micro level : explains individuals involvement in crime
Macro level: explains group involvement in crime
T/F Random Sampling and Random Assignment are NOT the same thing
What's appropriate time order ?
states that the independent variable MUST be measured before the dependent variable to ensure correct causal ordering
Cross Sectional Data
All data are collected at a single point in time
Data are collected at two or more points in time
What is Empirical Association?
Two variables must be related with each other (i.e., they must vary together or "covary") The three types include positive, negative and no association at all
Difference between + and - associations
= variables in same direction
= variables in opposite direction
What are the 3 main requirements to make a strong casual inference?
1.Empirical Association2. Appropriate Time-Order3. Non-Spuriousness
What are trend studies?
A Longitudinal study where data is collected at 2 or more different points in time from DIFFERENT samples of the same population
What's a Fixed-Sample Panel Design?
A Longitudinal study where data is collected at 2 or more points in time from SAME samples.
What are the 4 types of validity?
What are units of analysis?
the level of social life or phenomena that is being studied
What are units of observation?
the level of social life or phenomena that is being observed
shows that the measurement produces the same results each time
states that the measurement accurately reflects the meaning of a concept
Types of validity assessments of measures
face, criterion, content, construct
What's the difference between Confidentiality and Anonymity?
Confidentiality: subjects CAN be identified only by the researchers Anonymity: subjects CANNOT be identified even by the researchers
What are the 3 primary ethical considerations researchers must consider ?
avoidance of harm
protection of subjects identities
What are the 4 ethical considerations when reporting research?
Reporting null findings
Avoiding staging findings
Protecting subject identities
Name the 4 ethical conundrums
withholding of treatment
Research influences crime
As a general rule, researchers should avoid causing what to research subjects, researchers, informants and other individuals?
They should avoid causing any physical and physiological harm
What are the different level of measurements?
nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
What are Nominal Measures
Measures that simply tell us there is a difference between attributes
What are Ordinal Measures
Measures that rank-order differences between attributes
What are Interval Measures
Measures that use equally spaced intervals to meaningfully specify the difference between rank-ordered attributes
What are Ratio Measures
Measures that use equally spaced intervals and a true zero point to meaningfully specify the difference and proportional difference between rank-ordered attributes, respectively
What's the difference between mutually exclusive measures and mutually exhaustive measure
1- Exhaustive: All possible attributes of a variable must be specified 2- Mutually Exclusive: Each observation can take on only one attribute
What is the conceptualization process?
The process of specifying exactly what a concept means
what is the operationalization process?
The process of specifying the procedure for actually measuring the concepts in our research
What is the best sampling methods for generalizability?
probability sampling (random sampling) may include:
simple random sampling
disproportionate stratified sampling
explain probability sampling and implications for generalizability
-A method of sampling in which each individual has a known probability of being selected into the sample.
randomization is utilized
explain non- probability sampling and implications for generalizability
-A method of sampling in which each individual does not have a known probability of being selected into the sample
randomization is not utilized
Explain sampling error
Error that occurs when we use a sample statistic to estimate the value of a population parameter.
Explain sampling bias
Error that occurs from using a non-probability sample or from under coverage.
What is under coverage?
Undercoverage refers to the sampling frame not capturing everyone in the target population.
What is non-response bias?
Error that occurs when some sampled subjects refuse to participate or do not complete portions of the survey.
What is a response bias
Error that occurs from subjects' incorrect responses or poorly worded questionnaires.
What type of error occurs with probability sampling but due to randomization we have statical theory to guide our inferences
_______ ________ also occurs with non-probability and, because of lack of randomization, sampling bias is likely
What is the sampling frame?
The 'list' of elements from which a probability sample is drawn
We want the sampling frame to include ___________ in the population
What happens when the sampling frame doesn't dhow everyone in the population?
non-representative probability samples are possible because those not in sampling frame may differ fundamentally from those in the sampling frame.
What are the 4 types of non-probability samples?
What are the 5 types of probability samples
Simple Random Sampling
Explain experimental research
Research design in which the experimenter controls all aspects of the research
random assignment is utilized
Considered the "gold standard" of social science research
What is Quasi-Experimental Research?
Research in which the experimenter approximates experimental research with observational data
random assignment is not utilized
What is Interrupted Time Series
is an analysis is a useful quasi-experimental design with which to evaluate the longitudinal effects of interventions, through regression modeling.
What are focus groups
Small group of people that engage in a guided discussion of a topic or issue
How does one gain access to research subjects in field research
A case study in which the researcher goes into a natural environment and acquires knowledge via observation and asking questions
What are the 3 goals of field research/ ethnography
To fully understand a particular case as it occurs in the natural environment
To collect data that enables the creation of grounded theory
Inductive theory building
What are saturation points in field research ?
The saturation point occurs when new interviews or observations yield little additional information
What is a full participant
Research subjects view the researcher as "one of them."
What is a participant observer
Participate but make it known to research subjects that you are a researcher and are collecting data
What is a full observer ?
Researcher refrains from participation
What's an example of a structured observations ?
Checklist of physical disorder items.
What's an example of a unstructured observations
record behaviors and actions as they occur without a specific plan or checklist.
What's an example of a structured interview ?
a set of question is asked during an interview.
What's an example of a unstructured interview ?
conversation flows naturally and questions are adapted accordingly.
What are the 3 ways of administering a survey?
Self administration: paper/pencil, computer based, individual or group setting
Professional administration: in person interview, CAPI, CASI
Telephone interview: CATI
Name the 3 qualities of surgery's and survey research
Survey research that can enhance knowledge about various topics in criminology, criminal justice, and social science generally.
Define Efficiency in regards to quality survey
Data on a large number of variables can be collected with a single survey, thereby making surveys useful for a variety of research purposes.