Chapter 11.2-11.3

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What is the difference between phenotype and genotype?

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Biology

10th

20 Terms

1

What is the difference between phenotype and genotype?

The phenotype is the organism's physical appearance and the genotype is a combination of inherited alleles.

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2

Define homozygous.

Genotype that has 2 dominant OR recessive alleles (PP or pp).

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3

Define heterozygous.

Genotype that has one recessive and one dominant (Pp).

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4

Define probability.

The mathematical chance that something will happen. It determines phenotypic ratios in offspring.

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5

How many alleles does a gene have?

A gene has 2 alleles.

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6

Define a punnett square.

It is a table that organizes all the possible genotype combinations of offspring from particular parents.

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7

Who was Thomas Hunt Morgan?

He was a geneticist from the early 1900s who used fruit flies for genetic experiments, which was ideal because they produced plenty of offspring.

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8

What were the conclusions drawn from Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments with fruit flies?

The conclusions drawn from these were that Mendel's principles applied to most traits in most organisms.

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9

Define incomplete dominance.

This is when a heterozygote has an immediate phenotype between that of either homozygote (the traits associated with each parent's genotype blend together).

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10

What is an example of incomplete dominance in plants?

An example of incomplete dominance in plants is the snapdragon flower (red x white = pink).

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11

What is an example of incomplete dominance in humans?

An example of incomplete dominance in humans is sickle cell anemia, where red blood cells are sickle-shaped. A heterozygote has a milder sickle cell trait.

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12

Define codominance.

When organisms have two different alleles of a gene and both phenotypes show at the same time.

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13

What are some examples of codominance in animals?

Some examples of codominance in animals are roan cows (red x white = white with red spots) and tabby cats (black x orange = orange with black stripes).

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14

What are some examples of codominance in humans?

Some examples of codominance in humans are ABO blood groups (AB blood type is an example of codominance).

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15

True or false: Traits in which there are more than 2 alleles that determine a gene can occur ("multiple alleles").

True.

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16

What are some examples of traits that are determined by more than 2 alleles ("multiple alleles")?

Some examples of traits that are determined by more than 2 alleles are animal fur color (4 different alleles) and human ABO blood types (3 alleles).

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17

Define what a polygenic trait is.

It is an inherited trait that is determined by more than one gene.

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18

What are some examples of polygenic traits?

Some examples of polygenic traits include eye color in humans that have at least 3 different genes with multiple alleles and parakeet feather color.

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19

True or false: Environment will also influence polygenic traits; phenotype is controlled by both environment and genes.

True.

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20

What polygenic traits on humans are affected by environment?

Skin color, height, weight, eye color, intelligence, and behaviors.

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