Lab Values & Interpretation

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When trying to interpret some lab values, what information should you take into consideration?

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1

When trying to interpret some lab values, what information should you take into consideration?

  • Disease conditions

  • Acute v chronic

  • Symtpoms

  • Age

  • Critical data

  • Trends of values

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2

What compounds are looked at in a complete blood count (CBC)?

  • White blood cells (leukocytes)

  • Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

  • Hemoglobin

  • Hematocrit

  • Platelets (thrombocytes)

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3

What time of day will someone’s WBC count often be higher?

In the late afternoon

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4

What time of day will someone’s WBC count often be lower?

In the early morning

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5

What is the function of WBC?

  • ID presence of infection, inflammation, or allergens

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6

What is the function of platelets?

  • Stop bleeding by clot formation

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7

What is the function of RBC?

  • Transport O2 to tissues in the body and carry CO2 to the lungs

  • Carry hemoglobin

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8

What is the function of hemoglobin (Hgb)?

Mesure O2 carrying capacity of RBCs

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9

What is hematocrit (Hct) representative of?

  • The percentage of RBCs in the total blood volume

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10

What is the most common WBC?

Neturophils

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11

List all the different WBCs

  • Neturophils

  • Basophils

  • Monocytes

  • Lymphocytes

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12

What kind of pattern do immature neturophils have?

Banded pattern

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13

What kind of pattern do mature neturophils have?

Segmented (segs)

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14

What would indicate a rapid production of WBC in response to infection?

A high number of banded neturophils

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15

What is the purpose of basophils?

  • Aid in immune response

    • Help in particular with allergies by releasing histamine

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16

What is the purpose of eosinophils?

  • Attack parasites

  • Help with asthma

  • Help with allergies

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17

What is the purpose of monocytes?

Migrate into tissues during injury or infection

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18

Once a monocyte migrates into a tissue, what is its new name?

Macrophage

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19

What do lymphocytes do?

  • Produce antibodies

  • Fight tumor cells

  • Respond to viral infection

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20

What are the different kinds of lymphocytes?

  • B cells

  • T cells

  • Natural killer cells

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21

The suffix -cytosis and -cythemia both mean that something is trending downward. True or false?

False! Both of these suffixes mean that someone is trending in an upward direction (ex. leukocytosis means that there’s an increase in leukocytes)

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22

The suffix -penia and the term anemia mean that something is trending in a downward direction. True or false?

True (ex. leukopenia means that there’s a decrease in leukocytes)

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23

What compounds are looked at in an electrolyte panel?

  • Sodium (Na)

  • Potassium (K)

  • Calcium (Ca)

  • Chloride (Cl)

  • Phosphate (PO4)

  • Magnesium (Mg)

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24

What can happen if potassium levels are either to high or to low?

Heart problems

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25

What clinical implications are similar with hyperkalemia and hypokalemia?

  • Increased risk of dysrhythmia

  • Increased risk of acute cardiac events

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26

What is the function of Na?

  • Determinant of extracellular fluid volume

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27

What is the function of Potassium?

  • Important for the function of excitable cells

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28

What is the function of Ca?

  • Helps with bone formation

  • Helps with cellular division and growth

  • Helps with blood coagulation

  • Helps with neurotransmitter release

  • Helps with muscle contractions

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29

What is the function of chloride?

  • Helps with fluid balance

  • Helps with acid base status

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30

What is the function of phosphate?

  • Necessary for bone formation

  • Helps with acid-base balance

  • Helps with storage (of what, idk)

  • Helps with transfer of energy

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31

What is the function of magnesium?

  • BP control

  • Bone strength

  • Heart rhythm

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32

The prefix hyper- means that something is trending in the upward direction. True or false?

True!

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33

The prefix hypo- means that something is trending in the downward direction. True or false?

True!

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34

How many lab test are included in a basic metabolic panel (BMP)?

8

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35

What lab test are taken for a basic metabolic panel (BMP)?

  • Ca

  • CO2

  • Cl

  • Creatinine

  • Glucose

  • K

  • Na

  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

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36

How many lab test are done for a comphrehensive metabolic panel (CMP)?

16

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37

What lab test are done for a comphrehensive metabolic panel (CMP)?

  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

  • Bilirubin

  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

  • Creatinine

  • Na

  • K

  • CO2

  • Cl

  • Albumin

  • Total protein

  • Glucose

  • Ca

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38

What are some kidney function tests?

  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

  • Serum creatinine

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39

What is the point of a blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test?

  • Look at the nitrogen portion of urea

  • Evaluate the metabolic function of the liver and excretory kidney function of the urea

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40

Serum creatinine is a catabolic product of what?

Creatine phosphokinase

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41

What organ excretes serum creatinine?

Kidneys

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42

Serum creatinine levels are a direct measure of what things?

  • Glomerular filtration rate

  • Renal function

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