Biology EOC Review

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Any factor in a organisms environment that is not living (Rocks & Water)

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205 Terms

1

Any factor in a organisms environment that is not living (Rocks & Water)

Abiotic Factor

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2

The building block of a macromolecule

Monomer

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3

Organelle that modifies proteins

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

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4

Area on an enzyme where substrate binds

Active Site

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5

The primary producer in aquatic ecosystems that generates about half of the O2 in the atmosphere

Phytoplankton/Algae

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6

The ecological "engineers" of an ecosystem. Play a major role in the shaping of the ecosystem.

Keystone Species

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7

Special role or functional position of an organism in its environment. (Job)

Niche

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8

Body system that transports materials throughout the body

Cardiovascular System

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9

Loose DNA in nucleus, before condensation into chromosomes

Chromatin

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10

Part of the earth that includes water

Hydrosphere

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11

A gene located on either sex chromosome, usually the X chromosome (Colorblindness, hemophilia, pattern baldness).

Sex-Linked

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12

At the end of succession, the stable plant community that exists is called the

Climax Community

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13

Interconnected food chains that show multiple options of feeding in an ecosystem.

Food Web

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14

The part of the feedback loop that detects changes in the environment

Receptor

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15

Process where mRNA is made from DNA in the nucleus

Transcription

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16

Mass of cells that does not have the ability to spread to other parts of the body

Benign

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17

A symbiotic relationship where both members benefit.

Mutualism

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18

Sudden change in species size or shape due to environmental factors after long period of little/no change

Punctuated Equilibrium

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19

Cells that have not yet differentiated

Stem Cells

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20

Plants releasing water from their leaves is known as

Transpiration

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21

When two or more species evolve in response to each other

Coevolution

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22

The layer of atmosphere where the "GOOD" ozone can be found.

Stratosphere

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23

Alternate forms of a gene that code for proteins

Allele

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24

A type of ecosystem that is defined by climate (average temperature and precipitation)

Biome

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25

Energy required to get a reaction started

Activation Energy

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26

A trait that is hidden. Represented by lowercase letters (Ex: tt).

Recessive

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27

Feedback loop that keeps increasing the original stimulus

Positive Feedback Loop

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28

The physical appearance of a trait (Ex: Blue eyes)

Phenotype

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29

Part of the earth that is solid and includes rocks and soil.

Geosphere

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30

Large scale changes that take place in organisms over long periods of time; speciation

Macroevolution

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31

Precipitation that has a low pH. Can lead to death of organisms in the soil and water.

Acid Rain

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32

Pattern of evolution suggested by Darwin where organisms undergo steady, constant changes over time

Gradualism

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33

When a recessive allele occurs with a dominant allele, the dominant allele is always expressed. Name this law (Ex: Tt → T is expressed).

Law Of Dominance

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34

Process where more DNA is produced. Occurs during the S phase of Interphase

Replication

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35

Usable form of energy for a cell

ATP

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36

All living organisms on earth

Biosphere

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37

Type of group behavior where an organism risks its own well- being to protect others in the group

Altruistic Behavior

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38

Region where two identical chromatids connect during cell division

Centromere

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39

Group in an experiment that is used as the comparison group. The independent variable is not changed.

Control Group

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40

Type ecological pyramid showing the total amount of living tissue present at different levels.

Biomass Pyramid

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41

The cell structure that helps the cell maintain homeostasis with its environment

Plasma Membrane

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42

Chromosomal condition resulting in an extra chromosome added to a homologous pair

Trisomy

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43

When neither allele dominates over the other and blends together to create an intermediate form. Name the inheritance pattern.

Incomplete Dominance

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44

Body system that protects and supports body organs

Skeletal System

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45

Members of the same species that can breed and produce fertile offspring.

Population

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46

Unrelated species of organisms living in similar environments evolve similar traits

Convergent Evolution

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47

Diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms

Cladogram

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48

Different populations coexisting in an area

Community

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49

Alleles separate (segregate) during gamete formation, making it possible for a recessive trait to reappear in later generations. 3 dominant:1 recessive Phenotypic ratio. Name the Law.

Law Of Segregation

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50

Macromolecule with amino acids as building blocks that perform many different functions in living things

Protein

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51

Part of the earth that includes all the gases

Atmosphere

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52

A stable internal environment that cells must be able to maintain

Homeostasis

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53

Cells resulting from mitosis are diploid, body cells also referred to as...

Somatic Cells

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54

Pollution with a single, identifiable discharge point

Point Source

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55

First part of photosynthesis, where ATP and NADPH are created using H₂O and sunlight

Light-Dependent Reactions

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56

Feedback loop that reverses the direction of the stimulus

Negative Feedback Loop

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57

Proteins that act as catalysts in living things

Ezymes

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58

Molecule created when adenine, ribose and 2 phosphate groups are combined

ADP

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59

The number of different species in an ecosystem.

Biodiversity

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60

When both alleles are the same. Also referred to as purebreds. EX: TT or tt

Homozygous

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61

Anything that absorbs more CO2 from the atmosphere than it releases

Carbon Sink

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62

The part of the feedback loop that decides what to do about the change in homeostasis (in mammals it is the brain or the spinal cord)

Control Center

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63

When both alleles are equally expressed. Name this inheritance pattern.

Codominance

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64

When different species split off from a common ancestor; adaptive radiation

Divergent Evolution

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65

Darwin's idea that species change over time to fit their environment; "Survival of the Fittest"

Natural Selection

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66

When both alleles are different. Also referred to as hybrids. EX: Tt

Heterozygous

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67

The process where glucose and other food molecules are broken down to release ATP that occurs in all living things

Cellular Respiration

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68

Laboratory technique to determine the order of nitrogenous bases in DNA

DNA Sequencing

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69

The letter combination for a trait. EX: Aa

Genotype

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70

When energy is passed from one trophic level to the next, not all the energy is passed on.

10% Rule

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71

Groups of organs working together to perform some BIG function in a multicellular organism are called

Organ System

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72

Macromolecule made of nucleotides that carry an organism's genetic code

Nucleic Acid

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73

A trait that is seen more often. Represented by capital letters (Ex: TT).

Dominant

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74

The increase in the planet's temperature as a result of increase in greenhouse gases due to HUMAN ACTIVITIES

Global Warming

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75

Ecological pyramid that shows the flow of energy from one trophic level to the next.

Energy Pyramid

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76

Different traits are inherited separately; independently separate during Meiosis. 9:3:3:1 Phenotypic ratio. Name the law.

Law Of Independent Assortment

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77

Greatest amount of energy and biomass are found with these organisms. Plants and Algae are examples

Producer

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78

Organism that break down material. Examples include bacteria and fungi

Decomposer

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79

An inherited characteristic that increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction

Adaptation

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80

Second part of photosynthesis that uses ATP, NADPH and CO₂ to create glucose

Light-Independent Reactions

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81

Threadlike structures that attach to and separate chromosomes during cell division

Spindle Fibers

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82

Genetic cross involving two traits where parents are HETEROZYGOUS for both traits. 16 box Punnett Square (Ex: TtRr X TtRr).

Di-Hybrid Cross

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83

Process in autotrophs where food molecules are produced from CO₂ and H₂O using light as an energy source

Photosynthesis

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84

In the absence of oxygen, organisms, like yeast, convert pyruvate to ethanol and CO2 to convert NADH back to NAD+ in this process

Alcohol Fermentation

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85

Calculation of the number of organisms of a group that are still alive after a given amount of time

Survival Rate

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86

Body system that eliminates nitrogenous waste from the blood

Urinary System

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87

The idea that species change over time, give rise to new species and share a common ancestor

Decent With Modification

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88

Name the TWO energy carriers in cellular respiration

NAD+ and FAD

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89

INCREASE in the concentration of a pollutant at each successive trophic level.

Biomagnification

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90

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91

The site of cellular respiration in the cell

Mitochondria

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92

Structures that do not have a current function in an organism

Vestigial Structures

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93

The LONG term effects of global warming on the planet and its ecosystems. Shift in the climate across the planet.

Climate Change

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94

Type of cell division resulting in unique, haploid cells used in sexual reproduction

Meiosis

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95

Small changes in a population over several generations; a change in the allele frequencies of a population

Microevolution

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96

Tool used in genetics to PREDICT possible traits in offspring. Gives EXPECTED NOT ACTUAL.

Punnett Square

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97

Traits that are is coded for by more than one gene. Examples include eye color, hair color, height, skin tone

Polygenic Traits

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98

Groups of tissues working together in a multicellular organism form...

Organs

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99

In the absence of oxygen, organisms, like mammals, convert pyruvate to lactic acid to convert NADH back to NAD+ in this process

Lactic Acid Fermentation

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100

Image below shows what type of relationship?

Predator-Prey

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