history midterm

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What is an artifact?


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US History


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What is an artifact?

an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest.

What are the differences between primary and secondary sources?

primary sources come first hand like a diary recording of yourself a secondary source is a newspaper about the diary.

Explain historical interpretation.

the process of finding the meaning or significance of historical events

What are the reasons to study history?

to learn new information and helps us have empathy for others, makes us better thinkers, helps avoid errors made in the past, and it is interesting

After historians collect evidence, their next step is to do what?

formulate a thesis statement

A secondary source is what?

a document or other record of past events created by someone who was not present during the events or the time period in which they occurred

When studying a historical event, what is the first step in a historian's process?

to do research

Why do historians establish a chronology or sequence of events in time?

So we know how the time relates to what you are studying and which events came first to influence other events

How does the study of history help people develop empathy?

History promotes awareness of problems, sorrows, joys, and hardships faced by people in other times and places. As that awareness grows, we have a greater opportunity to understand our own experiences—both good and bad.

Why is history worth studying?

because it makes us better thinkers and it helps us be more informed

How do we define governments that receive their "just powers" to rule from the "consent of the governed"?


How has the United States made progress in expanding equality since its founding?

it gave women the right to vote and gave african americans freedom of slavery

Define an ideal.

a principle or standard of perfection that a person or group consistently tries to achieve

How is America based on ideals?

-because the US government is based on ideas of limited government, including natural rights, popular sovereignty, republicanism, and social contract.

Why was the ideal of equality problematic in 1776?

because not everyone was equal

According to the Declaration of Independence, where does the government obtain its power from?

the people

What is a laissez-faire economic policy?

''hands-off'' less the government is involved, the better off business will be

A business organized as a corporation is owned by who?


What is a company called that completely dominates a particular industry?


What technology did Henry Ford use to mass-produce automobiles?

assembly line

What economic system are factories and other means of production privately owned


Why is Andrew Carnegie considered a philanthropist?

Because he donated lots of his money to charity

What revolutionary process transformed how iron was turned into steel?

bessemer process

Business strategy involves joining together many firms from the same industry.

horizontal integration

Why was the Sherman Antitrust Act unsuccessful at breaking up trusts and monopolies?

hard to interpret in courts

In the post-Civil War era, the United States evolved from what type of society into what other type of society?

agricultural society to industrial society

What factors led to the rise of big businesses and monopolies in the 1900s

New technologies like steam engines, railroads, and telegraphs made communication and transportation easier. The ability to source and transport materials across the country with ease turned many local businesses into national companies.

What did the Pullman Strike, Haymarket Affair, and Homestead Strike have in common?

they all turned violent and were not peaceful protests

What is a weapon used by labor unions when negotiations with business owners fail?

to go on stirke

What was significant about the Railroad Strike of 1877?

first time the national guard brought in for a protest

How did the government's response to labor unions differ from its response to factory owners when conflicts over labor conditions arose?

The government sided with factory owners during a union strike.

What act changed the course of what became known as the Haymarket Affair from a calm event to a violent event?

Bomb was thrown into the crowd

Explain the threats of living in tenements in the slums.

unsanitary conditions and disasters like fires could happen easily and spread fast

Upon arriving by ship in New York Harbor, what groups were required to go through immigration inspections at Ellis Island?

Immigrants in steerage

What group wanted to pass laws to decrease the number of immigrants coming to America?


What were some push factors during the Industrial revolution that made people want to leave Europe?

-poverty, food scarcity, unemployment, and lack of opportunities.

Describe the experience for immigrants living in steerage

cramped, smelled bad, diseases flourished lots of poor people, all wanted to be on deck to get fresh air

Why did Congress make it illegal for U.S. employers to hire contract laborers?

-so people in the U.S. could still get jobs and striking workers still had the power of a strike

What was life like in the United States for European immigrants?

-they were poor and got paid very low wages

What's a political boss?

powerful leaders who ran local politics in many cities, providing jobs and social services to immigrants in exchange for political support

How was Chinese immigration different from European immigration?

went to angel island instead of ellis island and they were treated worse and most could not speak english so they got even lower pay and went through harder tests to get into the U.S.

How did the immigration station at Angel Island differ from the one at Ellis Island?

Harder tests and immigrants were treated worse

What was the experience of Mexican immigrants that entered the United States from the South during the Industrial revolution time period?

there were a lot of them and they were escaping war from mexico

What are some of the "bread-and-butter" objectives of labor unions?

higher wages and better living conditions

How were politicians corrupt in the early 20th century?

They just wanted money and did not want to help people

Describe a party boss.

a boss is a person who controls a faction or local branch of a political party.

What did Upton Sinclair expose to readers with his 1906 novel "The Jungle"?

-the unsettling things done at meatpacking plants

In the early 1900s, many journalists wrote about America's social, political, and environmental problems, these journalists were called


Why did many children in the 1900s not attend school?

they had to work