Chapter 21

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geocentric

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31 Terms

1

geocentric

earth-centered

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2

heliocentric

sun-centered

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3

universal law of gravitation

explains the planetary bodies continues in elliptical orbits around the sun ; one of newton’s three rules of motion

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4

philosophe

French for “philosopher”, applied to all intellectuals during the Enlightenment

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5

separation of powers

form of government in which the executive, legislative and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances

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6

deism

eighteenth century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law

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7

lessez-fare

concept that the state should not impose government regulations but should leave economy alone

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8

social contract

concept that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will

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9

salons

the elegant urban drawing rooms where in the eighteenth century wealthy middle class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosopher

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10

rococo

artistic style that replaced baroque

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11

enlightened absolutism

system in which rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining full royal powers

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12

successor

one that follows

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13

federal system

form of government in which power is shared between national and state government

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14

kepler

author of planetary first law planet about orbit around the sun in ellipses

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15

Galileo

Italian scientist mathematician, discovered mountains on the moon,4 moons around Jupiter. author of the starry messenger

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16

Sir Isaac Newton

author of mathematical principles of natural philosophy, defined the three laws of motion

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17

Galen

great physician dominated the medicine in the Middle Ages relying on animal dissections

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18

William Harvey

discovered that the heart was the beginning of the circulatory system

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19

Blase Pascal

experimented how liquids behaved under pressure

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20

Robert Boyle

conducted controlled experiments of chemistry; properties of gases led to Boyle’s law

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21

Antoine Lavoisier

developed system for naming elements

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22

Margaret Cavendish

philosopher wrote works on scientific matters, believed humans through science were the masters of nature, published under her own female name

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23

Copernicus

thought that his heliocentric, sun centered, conception of the universe offered

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24

Maria Winklemann

self taught astronomer, discovered a comet applied for a position as an assistant astronomer and was turned down

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25

Rene Descartes

French philosopher used doubt to explain philosophy “I think therefore I am”

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26

Sir Francis Bacon

developed the scientific method

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27

John Locke

argued that every person was born with a blank mind and that people were molded by experiences

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28

Montesquieu

stated that England has 3 branches of government came with the concept of separation of power. system of checks and balances. worked his system into the United States

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29

Voltaire

greatest figure of the Enlightenment, known for his criticism of christianity

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30

Diderot

author of the encyclopedia

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31

Adam smith

author of the wealth of nations,expressed that state should not interfere with economics

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