The Early Middle Ages

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The Effects of the Fall of Rome on Europe

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The Effects of the Fall of Rome on Europe

The Germanic Invaders who invaded Western Europe disrupted the trade, due to merchants facing invasions and their businesses then collapsing. This also caused the downfall of cities, and population shifts due to the Western Europe population becoming mostly rural. Then, the decline of learning happened because the Germanic Invaders could not read or write. The level of learning sank and knowledge of Greek and Roman culture was close to lost.

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The Franks

Strongest Germanic tribe in Europe, controlling Gaul and central Europe. It was a Christian Kingdom that converted many to Christianity.

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The Battle of Tours

This is where the Christians, led my Charles Martel prevented Muslim advances into Western Europe

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4

Charlemagne

King of the Frankish Empire. He was a devout Christian and emphasized conversion of Europeans. He had Missi Dominici, who were government officials sent to preserve order in his empire. He wanted to make his court the second Rome and celebrated learning and education majorly, but when he died, it created a power struggle.

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Holy Roman Empire

This was from 800-816. It was a collection of loosely joined Christian Kingdoms in western central Europe. It was the Pope’s attempt to reestablish the glory of Rome, which had been lost and to make his relationship with Europe’s strongest monarch stronger.

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Missi Dominici

Charlemagne’s government officials that were sent out to preserve order in his empire

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Second Rome

Charlemagne wanted to make his court the “Second Rome” celebrating learning and education

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Curriculum

Charlemagne made a learning curriculum and surrounded himself with German, Italian, English and Spanish scholars

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Treaty of Verdun

This is the descendants of Charlemagne that signed this to break the Frankish Empire into three

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10

Feudalism

A political, economic, and social system where land (fiefs) was exchanged for goods, loyalty, and other services as protection

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Lords/Nobles

Lords owned big estates with peasants. They would also provide the king with soldiers or taxes. They ran the local manors. Nobles were like middle men between the peasants and the royal family. They provided work, land, and protection to the peasants

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Vassal

The lower lords, a lord can also be a vassal at the same time. They receive fiefs (land) from the lords above them

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Fief

Land that was exchanged for goods, loyalty and more

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Feudal Contract

It is where you bind yourself to the land for your whole life, and it can be done by serfs, knights and more. If the land is sold then you go with it if signed contract

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Knights

Recognized as a prestigious warrior class. Followed by chivalry. Commanded by warlords and rewarded with land. Had to be brave, knights usually were paid for their service. They were important soldiers who rode on horseback, and had to leave to start knight training at age 7. Their dubbing by another knight to become a real knight occurred at ages 18-21.

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Tournaments

Different ways knights can practice, train and keep their skills sharp

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Chivalry

Modeled through Christian virtues and values; vowing to protect the weka and the poor, show bravery and protect the church at all costs, ensured respect between fellow knights

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Manors/Manorialism

Huge estate owned by the lords, they could farm the land that was given to them. They inherited the status of their parents, and landowners could sell serfs for their labor, not for their ownership

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Self-sufficiency

Relying on oneself

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Sacraments

Baptism, confirmation and more. These are signs of grace by Christ for Christianity.

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Priest

Head of a church

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Tithe

A tax that priests would tax the people for 1/10 of their income. This helped to support the priest’s and other church officials. This taxing of the people had origins in the bible

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Monk

A group of people who lived on the outside of towns to prevent distraction so they can keep praying. They prayed multiple times a day and made their own things. They lived in monasteries

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Monastery

They were a prime place for raiders because of the books and valuables. They were communities where monks lived in rural lands

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Convent

Where nuns lived

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Secular

Non religious. This means not a religious figure. A non-secular figure may be spiritual

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Papal (Pope) Supremacy

Special way of saying the pope had power over secular(non-religious) rulers in Europe. This can be kings, emperors, more

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Canon law

laws that christians had to follow

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Excommunication

Pushed away by church, no longer allowed to receive sacraments (communion, baptism) or christian burial and cannot get to heaven

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Interdict

If you place an interdict on a town or place, then all the people living or who are there are banished from the church

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Peace of God

This was used by the Church to end feudal warfare. These were periods of peace or ceasefire. It demanded that fighting stop between Friday and Sunday each week and on religious holidays, and this was also a possible reason for the ending of feudal warfare in the 1100s.

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32

Benedictine Rule

Made by a monk named Benedict. It was to regulate monastic life. The three vows were taken by nuns and monks under this rule. Each day was divided into periods for worship, work, and study. Benedict believed in the spiritual value of manual labor, so he required monks to work in the fields or at other physical tasks. As part of their labor, monks and nuns cleared and drained land and experimented with crops

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