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1

Introduced species

Species transferred by humans from native to new habitat

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Native species

A species that occurs in an area naturally, without intervention

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3

Cryptogenic

Of obscure or uncertain origin

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4

Invasive species

An introduced species that harms its new environment

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5

K-selected species

Those species present in stable and predictable environments that produce fewer offspring, have longer gestation periods, and provide long-term care after birth, are larger, live longer

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6

r-selected species

Those species that produce a large number of offspring and contribute few resources to each individual offspring, smaller, short-lived

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7

Survivorship curves

Graphs that show the proportion of a population that survives from one age to the next

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8

Cohort

A group of individuals from the same population who are born at the same time

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9

Type I survivorship curves

Represent populations whose organisms tend to survive beyond their young and middle-ages and die when elderly (small # of offspring, lots of parental care ) (ex. whales, humans)

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Type II survivorship curves

Represent populations with a constant proportion of individuals dying at each age interval, steadily decreasing chance of surviving (ex. squirrels, birds)

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11

Type III survivorship curves

Represent populations that have a high death rate among the young, but a relatively low death rate for those who survive into middle and old age (lots of offspring, not much parental care) (ex. fish, bugs)

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12

Type I survivorship curve graph

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13

Type II survivorship curve graph

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14

Type III survivorship curve graph

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15

Population growth formula

P(n)= Initial population * growth rate ^n

p= population, n= # of unit of time (ex. 3 of months or years (example, initial pop of 500, growth rate of 10% and 5 years 500×1.1^5)

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Logistic growth

The s-shaped curve which contains exponential growth then hitting a carrying capacity

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17

Exponential growth

growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size

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18

Malthusian limit

The human carrying capacity as said by Thomas Malthus

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19

Overshoot

When a population briefly exceeds carrying capacity

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20

Die-off/dieback

Sharp decrease in population size when resource depletion due to overshoot leads to individuals dying

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21

Density-dependent factors

Factors that influence population growth based on size (food, competition for habitat, water, light, disease, food)

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Density-independent factors

Factors that influence population growth independent of their size (natural disasters like flood, hurricane, tornado, fire)

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23

Biotic potential

Maximum potential growth rate, with no limiting resources

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24

Population size formula w/ immigration

Population size = (Immigrations + births) - (Emigrations + deaths)

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Size (N)

Total # of individuals in a given area at a given time

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Density

Number of individuals/ area

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Distribution

How individuals in population are spaced out compared to each other (ex. random, uniform, clumped)

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Population sex ratio

The ratio of males to females in a population

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Population pyramid (age structure diagram)

Shows the distribution of age and sex in a population

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Rapid growth

Large proportion of young people and small proportion of older people, high birth, high death

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Slow growth

higher proportion of young people as compared to older people, but not as extreme as in rapid growth

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Stable population

Relatively similar proportions of young, middle age, and older people (declining birth rates, low death rates)

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Declining population

Relatively few younger individuals

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34

Doubling time

The time it would take for a population to double

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35

Rule of 70

Doubling time can be approximated by taking 70 and dividing it by growth rate (% , not decimal)

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36

Demographic transition model

Shows the shift from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

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Demographic transition model stage 1

Pre-Industrial

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Pre-Industrial

High birth rates, high death rates, population stays the same

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39

Demographic transition model stage 2

Transitional/Early Industrial

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40

Transitional/early industrial

Decreasing death rates, industrializing, population increases

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41

Demographic transition model stage 3

Industrial

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42

Industrial

Decreasing birth rates, small population growth

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43

Demographic transition model stage 4

Post-Industrial

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44

Post-Industrial

Birth rates low, death rates low, population stays the same

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