Chapter 4-6

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Reasons for taxes on the colonies

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Reasons for taxes on the colonies

  • Britain had a very high war debt (increased taxes on landlords and merchants)

  • Increased amount of british troops needed on western border w/ native land

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British debate over colonies

  • mid-1800s view on colonies changed as Britain saw the value of the land, population, and taxes (not just raw materials) (territorialists)

  • Mercantilists wanted to give Canada back to France in exchange for Guadelope (commercially valuable)

  • Territorialists wanted to keep Canada (a lot of land)

  • Debate over whether colonies should expand westward

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King George III

  • unstable parliament (removed whigs)

  • intellectual and psychological limitations (contributed to instability)

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George Grenville

  • Prime Minister in 1763

  • believed colonists should obey laws and pay a part of the cost of the war

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Colonies encroach on native land

  • English colonists moved into upper ohio valley; natives objected to the encroachment

  • Ottowa Chieftain Pontiac struck back

  • Proclamation of 1763: meant to prevent escalation of fighting that might threaten western trade. It forbid settlers to go beyond the Appalachian Mountains

    • Gave london control of westward expansion and kept settlers in profitable coastal areas and kept fur trade for british

  • John Stuart and Sir WIlliam Johnson: in charge of “Indian Affairs” for the colonies

  • White settlers still went past the boundary

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Mutiny Act of 1765

  • British troops were stationed in America

  • the colonists had to assist in provisioning and maintaining the army

  • British navy patrolled American waters to search for smugglers (increased customs)

  • NY and MA refused to follow it, NY assembly was disbanded as result

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The Sugar Act of 1764

  • replaces the Mollasses act of 1733

  • strengthened enforcement of the duty on sugar (decreased duty on Molasses) - (indirect tax)

  • created vice-admiralty courts to try smugglers (no trial by peers)

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The Currency Act of 1764

  • required the colonial assemblies to stop issuing paper money and retire paper money already in circulation

  • forces colonies to pay british in more stable currency: gold and silver

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The Stamp Act

  • tax on most printed documents in the colonies (direct tax)

  • affected most colonists - got pissed

  • used to fund british troops that protect americans

  • British were collecting 10x more revenue from the Americas than before 1763

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Tensions between American groups

  • “paxton boys” group from western pennsylvania descended on Philadelphia with demands for relief from colonial taxes and for money to fight natives

  • 1771: small-scale civil war: regulators (south carolina farmers) organized against high taxes that local sheriffs collects - suppressed

  • Challenges to landownership: Ethan Allen

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Effects of Grenville PRogram

  • post-war depression: colonists believed in part caused by Gernville programs

  • places hit hardest see the most rebellion (Boston)

  • england’s economy is hurt

  • colonists used to self government hate grenville program, creates a string of revolts (most of which are in NE/urban port cities)

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  • Defenders of american rights

  • Sons of Liberty: Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry, middle/working class, intimidated royal officials throughout the colonies

  • Stamp Act Congress: called for only american assemblies being able to tax the colonies

  • patriot lawyers and publicists provided the resistance movement with an intellectual rationale, political agenda, and a visible cadre of leades

  • used violence/intimidation/boycott

  • actions nullified parliament’s taxes

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Parliament reaction to patriots

  • parliament split: anger over resistance and some desired to leave colonists alone (economic hit on england)

  • Lord Rockingham: mollified colonists by repealing stamp acts

  • Declatory Act of 1766: reaffirmed parliament’s authority to make laws and were binding on colonists

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Townshend Program

  • Charles Townshend (exchequer) runs gov for William Pitt

  • Duties on paper, paint, glass, and tea imported to america

  • increased enforcement of commercial regulation

  • turned american resistance into an organized movement

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Colonial Boycotts

  • still boycotted external taxes because of lack of colonial consent

  • non-importation agreements amongst colonies

  • massachusetts assembly circulated a letter to colonies to oppose all taxes

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Lord North

  • took over as pm after townshend died repealed all taxes except on tea

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Homespun movement

  • daughters of liberty

  • in 1769 US in a surplus of goods (don’t need britain anymore)

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The Boston Massacre

  • competition for scarce employment + colonial resentment of england

  • dock workers throw stuff at soldiers, soldiers fire killing people

  • Samuel Adams = leader of public outrage

  • Crispus Attucks: African American rope maker killed in massacre

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Committee of correspondance

  • began in boston by Samuel Adams to publicize grievances

  • spread throughout the colonies as a way to coordinate their protests

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Philosophy behind the revolution

  • Americans want a written permanent constitution - England’s is too flexible

  • puritan influence

  • Scots considered england tyrannical

  • country party and Whig’s philosophy

  • enlightenment philosophy

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Virtual Representation

  • used to counter patriot argument of representation

  • idea that parliamentary leaders invest in american companies so have their interest in mind

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American vs. British view of governing

  • Americans argued for a division of sovereignty: parliament could make some decisions but so could the colonial assemblies

  • British believed Parliament could be the only authority

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Sinking of the Gaspee

  • Rhode islanders burned and sank a british ship in 1772

  • British sent commission w/ the power to send the rioters back to england for trial

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Tea Act

  • East India Company was almost bankrupt but owed british gov money since it used british troops to quell uprising in india

  • tea act of 1773 gave the company the right to not pay the navigation taxes

  • the company could undersell local merchants and create a monopoly

  • Colonists boycotted tea (women!)

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The Boston Tea Party

  • Dec 1773

  • Bostonians dressed as Mohawks threw tea into the harbor

  • response: 1774 policy of coercian

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Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)

  • closed boston port

  • reduced colonial self government: stripped charter so only loyalists can run the gov

  • permitted royal officers to be tried in other coloniesor in england when accused of crimes (vice admiralty courts)

  • quartered soldiers in colonist’s barnes and empty houses

  • added fuel to the fire

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The Quebec Act

  • extended boundries of Quebec to include French communities between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers

  • gave political rights to roman catholics + legality of roman catholic church

  • Americans thought this was a plot to subject them to the Tyranny of the pope + believed it woud limit westward expansion

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First Continental Congress

  • 1774 Virginia committee of correspondence called a special meeting in the Raleigh Tavern @ Williamsburg and issued a call for a continental congress

  • Sep 1774: first continental congress in philadelphia had delegates from all colonies (except georgia)

  • rejected a plan for colonial union under british authority

  • endorsed a statement of grievances and called for the repeal of all oppressive taxes since 1763

  • reccomended that colonists make military preparations against British in boston

  • agreed to non-importation, non-exportation, and non-consumption (to cut off all trade with GB)

  • agreed to meet again next spring

  • formed continental association to enforce the agreements

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Conciliatory Propositions

  • passed in 1775 by Lord North

  • proposed colonies could tax themselves at parliament’s demands

  • repealed earlier taxes

  • colonies didn’t get word in time: by the time they did the first shots had already been fired

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Lexington and Concord

  • colonists in massachusetts were preparing their “minutemen”

  • General Thomas Gage (commanding British garrison) sent soldiers from Boston to Lexington and concord in April 1775 to suppress colonists and seize their illegal supplies

  • William Dawes and Paul Revere set out to warn the villages and farms; when the troops arrived in Lexington minutemen were ready

  • British still defeated them. On the way to Concord, farmers hiding in trees took down 3x the number of British soldiers (British discipline was a detriment)

  • First shots of the war: “shots heard round the world”

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Second Continental Congress

  • led by John and Samuel Adams: 1775 greatly divided

  • Rejected the olive branch petition: authored by John Dickinson

  • challenge british rule because of brutality and corruption

  • establish continental army

  • appoint George Washington to lead continental army

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Thomas Paine

  • “Common Sense”

  • published in Jan 1776 - a call for independence and republicanism

  • aroused the general public and quickly turned thousands of american against british rule

  • Message was popular and clear: reject arbitrary powers of king and parliament and create independent republican states: “tis time to part”

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The Declaration of Independence

  • Thomas Jefferson

  • influenced by John Locke

  • blamed the rupture on George III ( appeal to sympathies of english people and to the philosophy of natural rights)

  • all men are created equal”

  • all men possess the “unalienable rights” of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”

  • government derives its “just powers from the consent of the governed”

  • declaration led to an increase in foreign aid

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Prohibitory Act

  • closed colonies to all overseas trade (naval blockade)

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responses to independence

  • mixed response from americans

  • colonies became states + wrote constitutions

  • 1777: articles of confederation were adopted by congress (not ratified until 1781) very weak central government

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americans mobilizing for war

  • needed weapons, soldiers, and supplies

  • relied heavily on equiptment captured from the British and that came from european nations (mostly France)

  • congress had no authority to levy taxes, printed a bunch of money to pay for war: massive inflation and value of paper money plummeted

    • local farmers and merchants preferred to do business with British who could pay in stable gold and silver

  • couldn’t control inflation so paid for war with loans

  • few people volunteered for military service so gov began drafting or paying bounties to recruits (ended up with mostly lower class)

  • militiamen were under the control of their respective states

  • spring 1775: created a continental army led by George Washinton

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War Strategy

  • US had advantage of fighting on their own ground and having people who were deeply commited to the cause and foreign aid from european competitors of the british

  • General Howe’s (British) strategy was of winning surrender rather than destroying: tactic failed

  • General Washington’s Strategy was to draw the British away from the seacoast, a war of attrition

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First Phase: New England

  • after lexington and concord american forces besiefed the army of General Thomas Gage

  • Battle of Bunker Hill (June 1775): patriots lost but highest casualties on british of the whole war

  • March 1776: British temporarily left american soil b/c boston was unstrategic (evacuation day)

  • Feb 1776: Patriots crushed uprising of loyalists at Moore’s Creek Bridge in North Carolina; discouraged British plan to invade the Southern States

  • Invasion of Canada: Benedict Arnold and Richard Montgomery threaten Quebec in late 1775 and early 1776: fail

    • congress sent a civilian commission to canada, headed by Benjamin Franklin but the Canadians didn’t support the cause

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The Second Phase: The Mid-Atlantic Region

  • British take new york

  • dark times for continental army

  • huge victories at trenton and princeton, saved colonial army

  • Britain’s strategy - divide colonies and capture Philadelphia (Howe)

  • Patriot Victory @ Saratoga - turning point of the war. Secured French assistance caused by Howe abandoning Burgoyne

  • Howe failed to engage with Americas even tho British had advantage

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Valley Forge

  • Continental Army winter camp from Dec 1777 for approx 12000 ill-equipped, battered troops

  • 2000+ men died of dysentery, typhoid, pneumonia, etc.

  • Mass desertion was avoided by Washington’s strict but inspiring leadership

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Baron Friedrich Willhelm von Steuben

  • Baron Friedrich Willhelm von Steuben was critical in developing military discipline, and training (particularly the effective use of the Bayonet) (father of the US Army)

  • Von Steuben’s Blue Book was used as a model for the U.S. military for many years

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Casimir Pulaski

  • father of the American cavalry

  • died at the battle of Savannah

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The Treaty of Alliance of 1778

  • specified that neither France nor America would sign a separate peace agreement before America’s independence was ensured

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British reaction to war (by 1778)

  • the war became increasingly unpopular in Britain (Tax Burden)

  • in 1778: parliament repealed the tea and prohibitory acts (blockades) and renounced its power to tax the colonies - rejected by Americans due to Treaty of Alliance

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The Iroquois and the British

  • Iroquois had declared neutrality in 1776 but not everyone agreed

  • Joseph and Mary Brant (Mohawks) persuaded their tribe + the Seneca and Cayuga to support the British

  • Other Iroquois tribes supported the Americans: Oneida, Tuscarora, and some Onondaga

  • Caused unraveling of Iroquois Confederacy

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The Final Phase: The South

  • British changed their stratefy to try to undermime the American from within by envoking Southern Loyalists - failed

  • British encouraged slaves to join their cause w/ the promise of emancipation - turned white slave holders against them

  • Support for independence increased

  • British had some success but patriot guerilla groups harrassed the british

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Nathaniel Greene

  • British crushed a patriot force under Horatio Gates - washington replaced Gates with Nathaniel Greene (Guerilla Warfare)

  • Greene divided the American forces into small fast-moving contingents - used rifles w/ greater aim

  • one contingent inflicted large blows on Cornwallis

  • Greene combined his forces and caused a lot of casualties on British - Cornwallis abandoned the Carolina campaign

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Battle of Yorktown

  • British withdrew to receive supplies sent by sea, went to Yorktown to wait for ships to carry the troops to NYC or Charlestown

  • Washington & Rochambeau; joined Lafayette in Virginia by land while de Grasse sailed with additional troops for Chesapeake Bay and the York River

  • Caught Cornwallis between land and sea - British capitulated Oct 17, 1781 - British surrended 7,000 men

  • After yorktown, British still occupied a lot of territory but it was the last major battle of the war

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Winning the Peace

  • Lord North stepped down as PM: Lord Shelburne succeeded him

  • British emmisaries met w/ American diplomats in Paris: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay

  • French (Vergennes) wanted to wait to make peace until British gave Gibraltar back to Spain - Americans proceeded w/o French and achieved a prelim treaty in Nov 1782

  • Treaty of Paris: Sep 3, 1783, both France and Spain agreed to end hostilities, recognized US independence

  • americans get land south of the great lakes, fishing rights, navigation of the mississippi, and forbade british from taking property

  • americans had to pay prewar debts to British merchants + give property back to lowalists

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Loyalists and Minorities

  • loyalists were alienated during the war - many fled the country

  • rich loyalists fleeing opened some economic and land opportunities for patriots

  • revolutionaru gov diestablished anglicanism in virginia and maryland

  • rev weakened anglicans and quakers and strengthened Romanc catholics (they supported Patriots). After War America got it’s own Catholic hierarchy

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The War and Slavery

  • African Americans: many defected/escaped during the war due to the British’s promise of emancipation

  • increased exposure to ideas of freedom for slaves caused increase in open resistance

  • fear of slaves being inspired by revolution caused SC and Georgians + West Indies to be reluctant to support war

  • North: revolutionary sentiment + evangelicanism spread anti-slavery

  • South: high white support for slavery

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Native Americans and The Revolution

  • British recruited Natives

  • Patriots wanted to end proclamation of 1763

  • Cherokee faction in Western Carolinas and Virginia attacked white settlers in 1776 - patriot militia crushed them

  • Iroquois caused wide-spread destruction in agriculture of NY and Pennsylvania

  • Patriot victory meant Americans expected removal of Western barrier

  • 1774: Shawnee Indians attempted uprising on white settlers but attracted no allies and were defeated (Lord Punmore’s War)

  • 1782: white militias slaughtered peaceful band of delaware indians

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Women’s Rights and Women’s Roles

  • men leaving for war meant increasing responsibilities for women in farm and bussiness and increase in impoverished women

  • some women went to army camps - preformed tasks (some fought)

  • growing support for women’s rights (Abigail Adams and Judith Murray) but war brought few advances

  • Women became important for instilling “American values” in new generation - Republican motherhood

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The Post-War Economy

  • America’s economy became independent of the British

  • British tried to drive Americans from waters but American privateers (fast vessels) fought back

  • Soon Americans created trade routes w/ the caribbean, souther american, and asia

  • states traded amongst themselves, homespun movement gave way for a domestic cloth industry

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Main ideals of new country

  • americans agreed on having a republic: gov where power was given to the people

  • wanted the country to be based on small indpendent landowners and equality and NOT inherited aristocracy (didn’t really happen)

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The First State Constitutions

  • did not embrace direct popular rule (most had upper and lower house)

  • governors couldn’t hold seat in legislature (curb power of executives and seperate legislative and executive branches)

  • steps taken to limit popular power: men of middling circumstances

  • Georgia and Pennsylvania: most democratic

  • shift to strong executives: by fixed salaries and elected by the people

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Toleration and Slavery

  • slavery survived in southern and border states but not in the North

  • most states banned importation of slaves

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The Articles of Confederation

  • limited power of the national government

  • federal gov could: declare war and peace, make treaties, adjudicate disputes between states, print money, and ask states for funds

  • couldn’t raise troops or taxes

  • big disputes: how to vote + what to do w/ western land?

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Western Land Ordinances

  • The Ordinances of 1784: divided western territory (now under the control of the confederation) into 10 districts

  • The Ordinance of 1785: created the survey and sale system (grids) as a way to raise money for the confederation

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787: abandoned 10 districts, instead created small sections where people could buy land (1$ per acre), once an area had more than 60k people it could apply for statehood.

    • prohibited slavery in the northwest

    • Speculators buy land and sell for more

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Native Resistance to Western Expansion (after the war)

  • Little Turtle leads forceful resistance

  • Battle of Fallen Timbers: ends in Treaty of Greenville and Miami Indians gave up land (1794)

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Economic and Political Issues of the Confederation

  • Post war depression (confederation couldn’t pay war debts)

  • Redemption of war bonds (speculators) angered veterans and farmers

  • political disputes over economic issues

  • Shay’s Rebellion: showed need for government reform

  • people wanted national policies (fear of disorder)

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The Constitutional Convention

  • called for by Hamilton and supported by Washington and Madison b/c of Shay’s Rebellion

  • Washington elected president of the convention

  • Delegates (rich men) from every state except Rhode Island

  • The Virginia Plan: (supported by larger states) - 2 houses based on populations, upper house elected by lower house who were elected by the people

  • New Jersey Plan: urged all states given equal representation - one house legislature

  • Compromise: The Connecticut Plan: lower house based on population, upper house 2 senators per state

  • Population was determined by census every 10 years

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The Constitution of 1787

  • Madison

    • ultimate authority comes from the people

    • federalism (shared power betweeen states and fed)

    • seperation of powers: three branches of gov

  • wanted to prevent despotism and the tyranny of the people

  • gave no rights to natives and POC (3/5 of a person)

  • Selection of president: electoral college chosen by state legislatures

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Concessions on slavery

  • congress was denied the power to regulate slavery for 20 years: mollify north and south

  • fugitive clause: allowed masters to reclaim enslaved blacks who took refuge in other states

  • 3/5tth clause: a slave considered 3/4ths in counting population for legislature (didn’t want them to count for taxes)

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The Federalist Papers

  • written to persuade (NY) of t==he importance of ratification of the constitution==

  • Main authors: Hamilton, Madison, and John Jay

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Debate on the constitution

  • anti-federalists: afraid of creating strong and potentially tyrannical government that would end individual liberty

  • delaware first to ratify; NY, MA, and VA want Bill of Rights

    • 10 amendments limit government’s power over the people, the 10th reserved powers for the states not outlined in the constitution

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The Executive and Judicial Branch

  • washington elected first president unanimously, John Adams is VP

  • president could nominate cabinet members but senate must approve: once approved only president could fire

    • secretary of state: jefferson

    • secretary of the treasury: hamilton

    • secretary of war: knox

  • Judiciary Act of 1789: congress chose 6 supreme court justices, court would decide constitutionality of state laws

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Hamilton’s Financial Plan

  • Congress should assume all state debts to establish good credit

  • charter a national bank: centralized banking and currency would stabilize inflatioon

  • Hamilton loosely interpreted the constitution: “all laws which shall be neccesary and proper” (Jefferson and Madison opposed)

  • Tarrifs and Excise taxes would help pay off the national debt

  • States that had paid their debts opposed assumption of debt b/c they didn’t want to pay taxes for other states’ debts

  • Deal w/ Virginians: capitol will be in the south (Washington DC) if virginia supports assumption

  • Nationa Bank was granted 20 year charter - restored public credit, increased bond sale, and helped merchants and manufacturers - small farmers bore largest brunt

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emergence of political parties

  • most founders believed political parties were dangerous

  • Madison + others believed federalists had become an overbearing/corrupt majority

  • emergence of the Republican Party: large partisan influence

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The (Democratic) Republican Party

  • leaders: Thomas Jefferson and James Madison

  • Jefferson believed in an agrarian republic: did not want development of an advanced industrial economy. wanted decentralization and strong relations w/ France

  • Republicans supported French rev even through the radical phase

  • more popular in rural south and west

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  • more popular in Northeast and Southern Seaports

  • favor industrialization and trade

  • want strong relationship w/ Britain

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Issues of the early republic

  • Whiskey Rebellion - PA farmers refused to pay whiskey tax, Washington used militia to enforce it

  • What to do with natives?

    • constitution recognized natives and gave them some sovereignty but not independent nations

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Maintaining Neutrality

  • Proclamation of Neutrality: lucrative for american farmers during chaos of French rev

  • Citizen Genet: french guy who tried to recruit Americans to French cause

    • US privateers attacking spanish and english ships

    • violated neutrality: washington demanded French recall him

  • Britain seize US ships trading w/ French in west indies

  • Jay’s Treaty: commercial agreement with britain: must pay for the stuff they seize

  • Pickney’s Treaty: w/ spain, opened missippi river and new orleans to americans, settled florida borders.

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The Election of 1796

  • Washington’s farewell adress - warned against foreign alliances and rivalry politics

  • divided federalists

  • some support adams but some prefer Pickney which leads to Jefferson winning second most votes (he becomes VP)

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Quasi War w/ France

  • caused by Jay’s and Pickney’s treaties

  • XYZ affair: Talleyrand demands bribe to talk about ending attacks on US vessels

    • Adams outraged: creates navy and allies with British against French

  • French step down

    • New trade agreements w/ Napoleon

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The Alien and Sedition Acts

  • to shut down opposition to Federalists

  • Alien Act restricted foreigners

  • Sedition Acts: allowed gov to prosecute opposition as treason: anti-federalist newspapers targeted

  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: states had right to nullify laws they deem unconstitutional (Jefferson and Madison) - didn’t get much support

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The “Revolution” of 1800

  • peaceful transfer of power between parties (SUPER uncommon)

  • election of 1800: Adams vs. Jefferson

  • adams was very unpopular b/c of Alien and Sedition acts

  • 73 votes ach for Jefferson and Burr

  • Jefferson wins election (hamilton swayed congress in his favor cause Burr is untrustworth)

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