nutrition learning outcome 1

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SMALL INTESTINE - SUROSA

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Biology

12th

90 Terms

1

SMALL INTESTINE - SUROSA

Surosa - outermost protective layer Surosa - smooth membrane, thin layer of cells the secrete fluid

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2

SMALL INTESTINE - MUSCULARIS

Muscularis - contraction, movement Muscularis - has outer, longitudinal and inner circular smooth muscle fibres

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3

SMALL INTESTINE - SUBMUCOSA

Submucosa - loose surface, carrying nerves and vessels

Submucosa - supports the mucosa, allows it to be more flexible

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4

SMALL INTESTINE - MUCOSA

Mucosa - the most inner layer covered in villi to increase surface area for nutrient absorption to be more effective Mucosa - most inner layer with ring like folds called plicae. The folds are covered in tiny protruding shapes known as villi, they are finger like structures that increase surface area and are also covered in microvilli to further increase surface area

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5

LAEGE INTESINE - SUROSA

Surosa - very very thin so it contains the muscularis Surosa - contains the muscularis

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6

;ARGE INTETSINE - MUSCULARIS

Muscularis - movement, small muscle fibres Muscularis - made up of small muscle fibres

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7

LARGE INTESINE - SUBMUCOSA

Submucosa - has patches lymphoid nodules to secret mucous for lubrication Submucosa - also designed for lubrication purposes, secrete mucus for lubrication

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8

LARGE INTESTINE - MUCOSA

Mucosa - secret mucus to lubricate faeces Mucosa - contains goblet cells for lubrication secretion

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9

STOMACH - SUROSA

Surosa - connective tissue, outermost protective layer, thin layer Surosa - coats and protects organs from infection but not from impact

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10

STOMACH - MUSCULARIS

Muscularis - contracts and moves food items around Muscularis - thick muscles with a lot of muscle fibres allow for contraction and for a churning action to help mechanically breakdown food

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11

STOMACH - SUBMUCOSA

Submucosa - where all your blood vessels are, this is where nutrients are absorbed Submucosa - thin for absorption and blood vessels allow for absorption directly into the blood stream making it more efficient

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12

STOMACH - MUCOSA

Mucosa - has deep enfolds and contains mucous cells Mucosa - gastric pits (deep in-folds), this contains gastric glands are, they secrete mucus lining to protect the stomach from digesting itself. This is one of the thickest layers

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13

List the 6 essential nutrients

carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water

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14

describe the source and function of protein

energy, growth and repair, fish meat and eggs

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15

describe the source and function of fats

energy, temp reg, insulation, meat, fish, dairy oils

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16

describe the source and function of carbs

energy, maintain blood sugar levels, converts to fat, potatoes bread products and pasta

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17

describe the source and function of vitamins

maintain growth and heath, survival, fat or water soluble, fruit and vegetables

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18

describe the source and function of minerals

helps with normal body functions, fruit and veg

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19

describe the source and function of water

metabolism, essential for most body functions, temp re, bodies of water and food

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20

describe nutrition

the process of taking in food and using it for growth and repair the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth the essential dietary requirements that an animal takes form food and its environment that it needs to thrive and survive

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21

what are the nutritional stages

ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, assimilation and excretion

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22

describe a nutrient

a substance that is essential for life and nourishes that body

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23

all nutrients are --- based

chemical

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24

what nutrient is most important

water

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25

what nutrient do you need in abundance

macro nutrients

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26

what nutrient do you need less of

micro nutrients

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27

different species will ----- the most important nutrient for there species when feeding

prioritise

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28

what nutrients give energy

protein, carbs and fat

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29

what gives the faster source of energy

protein

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30

what gives the best source of energy

fat

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31

What % of the body is water?

70%

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32

describe unsaturated fats

liquid at room temp, comes from animal products and plant products

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33

describe saturated fats

only contain fatty acids, soli at room temp, mainly come from animal products

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34

describe trans fats

artificial, makes oils more solid, gives longer shelve lives but can lead to heart problems

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35

what are complex (or starchy) carbs

they have more glycocylic bonds or bridges and are found in cereals, potatoes and rices - good for animals with type 2 diabetes

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36

what are simple carbs

found in fruit and refined sugars, single unit monomers, may be added like glucose

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37

where are vitamins a, d, and k absorbed

the gut - this is because they are fat soluble

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38

what can too many vitamins lead to in an animal

toxicity - hypervitiminois that is more common in fat soluble vitamins

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39

what vitamins are water soluble

b and c

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40

describe minerals

inorganic substances, required by the body in small amounts

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41

how many minerals are required by the mammalian body

18

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42

what are minerals referred to as on pet store packaging

ash

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43

what is potassium important for

heart beat regulation

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44

what is digestion

the breakdown of food to its smallest form so that the body can absorb the require nutrients through the bloodstream, to the appropriate organs and muscles

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45

describe the digestive system

where nutrients are acted upon in a series of physical actions (chewing) and chemical actions (stomach acid)

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46

what does GI tract stand for

gastrointestinal tract (hollow organs)

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47

name the three types of digestive systems

monogastric, ruminants, hind gut fermenters

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48

what can ruminate often be identified by

large, hoofed mammals

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49

how many stomach chambers do ruminate have

4 - rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum

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50

what do ruminants have instead of upper inscicors

dental pad

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51

what portion of a day will ruminants spend grazing

one third

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52

what portion of a day will ruminate spend chewing the cud (cutting)

one third

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53

three examples of ruminants

cows, giraffes, sheep

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54

what happens in the rumen and reticulum (stage one)

enzymes begin to break down the food

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55

what happens in step 2 of ruminant digestion

food is regurgitated and re chewed

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56

what chamber of the stomach does the re chewed cud go to in step 3

omasum - liquid is drawn out of the food

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57

what happens in the abomasum (step 4)

proteins are digested

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58

what digestive system has a singular stomach compartment, limited ability to digest fibre and can only digest simple carbs

mono gastric

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59

Examples of monogastrics

dog, cat, human, pigs

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60

what action moves the food down the oesophagus

muscular action

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61

What is the duodenum?

It is the beginning of small intestine and connects the stomach to the small intestine

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62

in monogastrics, where does the majority of digestion take place

small intestines

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63

what does the caecum do in monogastrcis

breaks down remaining protein and fibre

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64

what happens in the large intestines in monogastrics

water is removed

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65

how many stomach chambers do rabbits have

one - they are hind gut fermenters

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66

what organ in hind gut fermenters is specially adapted to break down plant matter

stomach/colon

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67

what do hind gut fermenters store in there caecum

colonies of microorganisms that produce enzymes

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68

why do rabbits absorb their caectrophs (mucus covered soft poos)

so they can absorb more nutrients

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69

Examples of hindgut fermenters

horses, rabbits, rhinos

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70

what digestive system is the hind hind gut similar to

ruminants

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71

what is the most complex organ in the handout fermenter

large intesine - may take food 2-3 days to pass through due to slow process of fermentation

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72

what happens in hind gut fermenters once nutrients is fully absorbed

remains are emptied of water and passed on as waste

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73

rabbits have a --- metabolic rate

high

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74

rabbits GI tract...

...is highly complex

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75

in rabbits, gut --- is very important

motility

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76

what happens in rabbits if gut motility decreases

health problems can occur, gut stasis and death

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77

What % of a rabbits diet should be hay?

75 - 80%

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78

what should rabbits have along side hay

high fibre pellet meal, not museili

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79

what are the largest teeth in rabbit dentition

insciors

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80

what tooth do rabbits have to help prevent malocclusion

peg tooth

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81

how many teeth do rabbits have

28

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82

what is the diastema

hole in mouth/skull that helps rabbits store more food

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83

what is the acidity in hind gut fermenter stomachs

1-2 pH to aid in sterilisation

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84

what does the colon do in hind gut fermenters

sorts the food into digestible and indigestible

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85

what is the hind gut

Colon, caecum (produces mucus to protect ceacotrophs from stomach acid) and rectum

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86

what happens in the hind gut

This is where fibre or indigestible foods are sorted and the fermentation process can begin

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87

ceacum produces mucus layer to protect --- from stomach acid

caectrophs

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88

What is the caecum full of

good bacteria for fermentation

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89

after fermentation volatile fatty acids are produced - what does this provide

a key source of energy

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90

gut stasis in rabbits

leathal, no gut movement, impaction

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