O'Keefe Final Exam

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10. The arguments of Thomas Malthus and the definition of a Malthusian catastrophe. The reasons why a Malthusian catastrophe was predicted to inevitably occur. The things that stop a Malthusian catastrophe from occurring (checks and balances)

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10. The arguments of Thomas Malthus and the definition of a Malthusian catastrophe. The reasons why a Malthusian catastrophe was predicted to inevitably occur. The things that stop a Malthusian catastrophe from occurring (checks and balances)

  • Malthusian Catastrophe: point at which population growth exceeds food production - people die

  • Humanity is hardwired to breed without restraint

  • population is always going to be determined in the end by the natural world

  • Predicted to inevitably occur:

    • population growth heading towards food production

    • birthrate larger than death rate

    • resource scarcity

  • famine will keep the balance intact if social measures to control population fail (stops malthusian catastrophe from occurring)

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11. The impacts of invasive species, specifically the zebra mussel, the Nile perch, bass in Gatun Lake and a specific strain of cholera.

  • zebra mussel: formed massive colonies to clog underwater structures and out-competed/reduced population of native mussels

  • nile perch: introduced to improve fishing; contributed to the extinction of more than 200 local species which were relied on by local fishers

  • bass in Gatun Lake: reduced the number of other fish that feed on mosquito larvae, damaging local efforts to control malaria

  • strain of cholera: reported only in Bangladesh, arrived via ballast water in Peru 1991, killing more than 10,000 people over the following 3 years

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12. The reasons, both mathematical and biological, why Garrett Hardin thought population an unsolvable problem.

  • mathematical: you can’t maximize 2 things in an equation

  • biological: you can’t maximize population and individual calorie intake

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13. The examples of a ‘tragedy of the commons’ type situation given in class. The reasons why each of the three examples (one fisheries based, one maritime but caused by terrestrial activity, one very much human) are examples of the tragedy of the commons

  • fisheries based: The Grand Banks are fishing grounds off the coast of Newfoundland. For centuries, explorers and fishermen described this region as home to an endless supply of cod fish. In the 1960s and 1970s, advances in fishing technology allowed huge catches of cod. Following a few dramatically large seasons, the fish populations dropped, forcing Canadian fishermen to sail farther to maintain large catch sizes each season. By the 1990s, cod populations were so low that the Grand Banks fishing industry collapsed. It was too late for regulation and management; the cod stocks had been irreparably damaged. Since then, the cod populations have remained low, and some scientists doubt the Grand Banks ecosystem will ever recover.

  • maritime based: The Gulf of Mexico has a dead zone because everyone along the Mississippi River shares the waterway without considering how each small contribution of nutrient and chemical pollution adds up to have dramatic results.

  • human based: Public roads are an excellent example of common property shared by many people. Each of these people has his or her own interest in mind — typically, how to get to work as quickly and easily as possible. But when everyone decides that public roads are the best way to meet traveling needs, the roads jam up and slow down overall traffic movement, filling the air with pollutants from idling cars.Turning public roads into private roads or toll roads creates a different scenario. With a toll to pay (especially if the toll is higher during peak-use hours such as rush hour), drivers may consider a less-direct route or choose to drive to work at a different time.

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14. The solution that Hardin offered to solve the ‘tragedy of the commons’. The implications of this for the ownership of land.

  • “mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon” we have to do what we can to protect these resources, and to do that we need to get rid of the commons to avoid tragedy

  • in the form of private property rights and inheritance, we need to avoid new commons forming

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15. The name of the Nobel prize winning economist who argued against the Tragedy of the Commons thesis. The basis of her argument (see point 29).

Elinor Ostrom, the basis of her argument was to be sustainable, usage must be coordinated, regulated, but that does not mean government management/privatization are the only options: Ostrom’s work demonstrated in meticulous detail that people can and do work together to manage shared resources sustainably - collective action

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16. Know the demographic transition model well. Especially the birthrate and death rate, the balance between them, and how this changes as societies pass through varying levels of economic development. What does Hans Rosling identify as a critical indicator in explaining falling population growth rates.

  • Phase 1: preindustrial societies are characterized by high death and birth rates

  • Phase 2: In most societies, as the basics of “modernity” are - accessed the first change is a rapid fall in death rate

  • Phase 3: Birth begin to fall, but at a later date than death rates

  • Phase 4: Death rates and birth rates broadly equalize, at a much lower level than previously

    • total population number is much higher than previously

  • Gap between death rate and birth rate = rapid population growth

    Rosling identified that countries entered phase 5 as a critical indicator

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17. The assumptions that are present in Malthusian thinking about how people are affected by natural laws of population growth and fall.

  • a world that is already owned, divided, and has limited resources

  • with more and more people, there are fewer resources to go around (scarcity) society is no longer able to reproduce itself in the manner accustomed

  • the only solution is to restrict access to the feast - unlimited number can’t be sustained

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18. The arguments made by Boserup and others against Malthusian thinking.

  • Boserup: took this approach to agriculture in the developing world and showed how increased population pressure encourage agricultural intensification and innovation, and food production can and will increase to match the needs to the population based on simple economic principles (economic laws determine social activity)

  • Julia Simon: argued that population growth was a spur to innovation and technological change, rather than a harbinger of inevitable doom

  • Bjorn Lomborg: points out that global food supply per person per day increased 23% between 1960 and 2000

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19. Study the population pyramids for Ghana and Kenya. Understand what the changing shape of the pyramid over time indicates, in terms of changing population growth rates.

  • 1990: great amount of males and females in the 0-4 year category but as the ages started to increase, population would start decreasing

  • 2010: we see that there is a significant decrease in both males and females in the 0-4 category. As ages increase, there is no specific pattern. Pyramid goes up and down sporadically

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20. The relationship between poverty, education level, and rural/urban location, and the number of children had by women.

  • high fertility rates are evident in rural areas, with poor people who have little to no education

  • low fertility rates are evident in urban areas, with rich people who have education above primary

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21. The fertility rate in Africa in the middle of the 20th century, the present day, and the predictions for the end of the 21st century

  • middle of the 20th century: women have an average of 6.6 births

  • present day: fertility rate is an average of 4.71 children, twice the world average of 2.51

  • end of 21st century: fertility rate is estimated to be 2.16, above the world average of 1.99.

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22. There is a reading about Elinor Ostrom in the Unit 4 tab. Know it well, especially what she identifies as the critical component in the sustainable management of natural resources. Is it nationalization, privatization or something else?

to be sustainable, usage must be coordinated, regulated, but that does not mean government management/privatization are the only options: Ostrom’s work demonstrated in meticulous detail that people can and do work together to manage shared resources sustainably - collective action

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23. Understand the pattern of global population growth since 1800. Also understand the pattern of population growth rates over time, which are different. Both graphs can be found in the Lecture 9 slides

Population is growing steadily since the 1800s; now that we are in the industrial/postindustrial era (2020 and onward) population may continue to grow, slow, or drop.

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1. Know the difference between a natural hazard and a natural disaster.

Natural Hazard: unexpected or uncontrollable natural event of unusual magnitude that threatens the activities of people or people themselves.

Natural Disaster: natural hazard that actually resulted in widespread destruction of property or caused injury and/or death.

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2. Understand the “disaster risk equation”, especially the social causes of vulnerability, and

the social factors that affect the capacity to cope. Look back at the slides for Lecture 17

and know what made people living in Bangladesh during Cyclone Sidr (2007) and people

living in Myanmar/Burma during Cyclone Nargis (2008).

Disaster Risk Equation: Disaster risk= Hazard x Vulnerability all divided by Capacity to cope. The social causes of vulnerability are: -limited access to power resources;-Lack of training, rapid population growth, deforestation; unsafe environment, public actions, and social relations. Climate change and adaptation for cyclones.

Bangladesh Cyclone Sidr- Less than 10,000 died
- 2 million people evacuated from path
- Early Warning Systems
- physical infrastructure (coastal embankments)
- provision of shelters

Burma Cyclone Nargis
- much poorer country than Bangladesh
- dictatorship did not provide similar investment in disaster preparedness
- did not receive as much global assistance
- EWS not as strong
- over 130,000 deaths

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3. The earth processes that can cause a tsunami to develop. The average speed of a tsunami.

Volcanoes, Mountain building, and Earthquakes are earth processes that cause a tsunami. The average speed of a tsunami is 500mph

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The three stages of the disaster management cycle, and the types of activities associated with each of the three stages.

Pre-disaster: Risk assessment, mitigation/ prevention, and preparedness.

Disaster Response: Warning evacuation, saving people, providing immediate assistance, and assessing damage.

Post-disaster: on-going assistance, restoration of infrastructural services, reconstruction (resettlement/ relocation), economic and social recovery, ongoing development activities, and risk assessment mitigation/ prevention

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5. The factors that made Haiti vulnerable to the earthquake that struck in 2010, both before and after the hazard occurred.

Before the Hazard Occurred:

-Exceedingly poor, suffering impacts from hurricanes

-Unsafe houses

-Unstable slopes

-Lack of insurance

-Lack of power

-Lack of electricity and communication -Lack of early warning.

After the hazard occurred:

-Exceedingly poor, suffering impacts from hurricanes

-Cost of recovery reduces ability to invest in risk reduction

-Lack of clean water

-Lack of insurance: can't rebuild

-Lack of power: no entitlement for gov't assistance

-Lack of electricity and communication

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6. The scale of global food waste. In terms of the dollar amount wasted by the average

American family, in terms of the amount of Hectares (and the country this is comparable too), and in terms of a percentage of total crops grown for food that are never consumed by people.

- Food waste: 24% calories produced for people that are never consumed
- Environmental waste: 198m Hectares used to produce food we don't eat (about the size of Mexico)
- Financial waste: $1600= value of food thrown out by the avg US family per year

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7. The amount of lost or wasted calories every day, per person, in North America and Oceania. The percentage of this that is wasted by the consumer.

1,520 calories, 61% wasted by the consumer

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8. The type of food crop accounting for more than half the total global food waste (by Kcal)

Cereals- 53%

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9. The two types of biofuel introduced in class. The one that is most important in the United States. The two countries that produce the most biofuel globally.

Ethanol & Biodiesel
- Ethanol most important to US
- Two countries that produce the most biofuel: US and Brazil

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10. The amount of people receiving SNAP (foodstamp) benefits in the USA, and the annual cost of this.

47 million people using SNAP
Cost = $78 billion per year

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 11. Know the environmental hazards that triggered the Irish potato famine, the North Korea famine of the 1990s, and the 1943 Bengal Famine.

-Irish potato famine: Staple crop failed due to blight
-North Korea famine: Flooding wiped out agricultural regions
-Bengal famine: cyclone and 3 tsunamis wiped out agricultural land

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12. Know the socioeconomic conditions that made people vulnerable to famine during the Irish potato famine, the North Korea famine of the 1990s, and the 1943 Bengal Famine.

- theory of famine that identifies the lack of entitlement to food as the ultimate cause of famine
- Ireland: was under British rule, was still exporting wheat. Food imports banned.
- NK: military first strategy. Unable to import food. unwilling to engage w/world for assistance. dictatorship
-Bengal: part of British India. Impact of Japanese colonialism in Burma. Food production in region higher than in previous years, but British were exporting it

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13. The Indian economist who came up with the ‘Entitlements’ theory of famine. The type of system in which he argues famine can’t occur.

Amartya Sen. A true democracy

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14. Famine as food availability decline, famine as food entitlement decline. The difference between these ways of understanding the causes of famine.

Food entitlement: why famines occur in some places and not others was rooted in political and economic, not environmental relations. It is not the lack of food that causes famine, it is the absence of the entitlement and capacity to access food. People do not starve when they are entitled to receive food, even if they can't grow enough for themselves.

Food availability: inability to produce food as the ultimate cause of famine. Intuitive, common-sense theory

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15. Global trends of urbanization. The two continents that had majority rural populations in the year 2000. The continents predicted to have a majority rural population in 2030.

-Global trends of urbanization: The rise of the modern city is tied with the spread of capitalism, Industrial revolution in England, Industrialization in Europe and North America, Rebuilding post-WW2, and Modern globalized economy.

-The two continents that had majority rural populations in the year 2000: Africa and Asia.

-The continents predicted to have a majority rural population in 2030: none

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16. The approximate year in which the global urban population overtook the amount of people living in rural areas.

between 2005 and 2010

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17. The approximate year in which the United States urban population overtook the amount of people living in rural areas of the USA.

1920's-30's.

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18. Read the linked reading on Lecture 16 carefully. On the subject of “The great urbanization”. What are the possibilities for cities helping address environmental challenges, and what are some new environmental challenges that the growth of these cities has created?

the New Urban Agenda is implementing:

-renewable and energy-efficient technologies

-policy action to reduce emissions

-local accountability

-mechanisms to finance investments in urban infrastructure and smart technology

-urban vocational and technical training.

New environmental challenges:

-The poorest cities in the world are also the fastest-growing

-Lack of resources and capacity to prevent locking into structures that are inefficient, unreliable, and polluting.

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19. The case of Eko Atlantic in Lagos, Nigeria. How does it reduce urban risk from climate change? Is this a win-win situation for everyone in Lagos?

Eko Atlantic:
- Lagos is extremely vulnerable to sea level rise, so building a huge new land mass: producing a new environment in the Anthropocene
- Luxury housing for 250,000 people
- Massive investment in sea defenses
- Intention to make Lagos the "Hong Kong" or Africa
- land is privately owned and managed: no one except the owners have the right to be there
- ought we be building islands of privilege surrounded by growing vulnerability- 60% of Nigerians live on less than a dollar per day

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20. The general patterns of Carbon Emissions in wealthy cities of the world, compared to the average carbon emissions per person in the same countries. Compare this with the average emissions in Shanghai and Beijing, compared to the Chinese average.

Relationship between carbon emissions and cities: in some parts of the world emissions from urban dwellers are greater and in some parts of the world emissions are less

Developed countries: city emissions are less than national emissions.

Developing countries: city emissions more than national
Shanghai and Beijing: about 8-11 per capita, Chinese avg: 5 per capita

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21. Agriculture’s share of greenhouse gas emissions, globally.

24%

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22. Agriculture’s share of earth’s landmass, globally excluding Antarctica.

37%

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23. Agriculture’s share of water withdrawal, globally.

70%

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23. The broad areas of the world where climate change is expected to have negative impacts in agricultural production

US, Canada- sea level rising, floods, big storms

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24. The most lucrative food crop in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Vermont.

Pennsylvania: Mushrooms.
New Jersey: Blueberries.
New York: Apples.
Vermont: Maple syrup.

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25. The South American country accounting for 44% of all global asparagus exports. The country that is the second largest exporter.

Peru. The second largest exporter: Mexico: 23%

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26. The two regions of the world which dominate consumption of organic food.

Europe and North America

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27. The region of the world with the most land farmed using organic techniques.

Oceania

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28. There will be several questions asked about the readings in the Module 5 folder. Know the different types of sustainability well. Know how they relate to debates surrounding sustainable development. Look up the Sustainable Development Goals

The types of sustainability:
- ecological sustainability (ecosystems and biosphere), sustainable development (people's livelihoods, economy, society), sustainable growth (economic efficiency)

The sustainable development goals are:
Dignity-end poverty and fight inequality,
People-ensure healthy lives, knowledge,and the inclusion of women and children,
Planet- protect our ecosystems for all societies and our children, Partnership-catalyse global solidarity for sustainable development,
Justice- promote safe and peaceful societies, and strong institutions, and
Prosperity- grow a strong, inclusive and transformative economy.

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29. The broad areas of the world where climate change is expected to have positive impacts in agricultural production

-Arctic: new plant life can grow

-Russia: longer seasons, commercial routes, global trade, Northwest passage

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Recall The Limits To Growth

  • Population growth

  • industrialization

  • Pollution

  • Food production

  • Resource depletion

  • All presumed to increase exponentially

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